Volatiles and Flavor of Five Turkish Hazelnut Varieties as Evaluated by Descriptive Sensory Analysis, Electronic Nose, and Dynamic Headspace Analysis/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors

  • C. ALASALVAR,

    1. Author Alasalvar is with the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Food Research Center, Univ. of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, United Kingdom. Authors Odabasi, Demir, and Balaban are with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Florida, PO Box 110370, Gainesville, Fla. Author Shahidi is with the Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9, Canada. Author Cadwallader is with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, 1302 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, Ill. Direct inquiries to author Alasalvar (E-mail: calasalvar@lincoln.ac.uk).
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  • A. Z. ODABASI,

    1. Author Alasalvar is with the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Food Research Center, Univ. of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, United Kingdom. Authors Odabasi, Demir, and Balaban are with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Florida, PO Box 110370, Gainesville, Fla. Author Shahidi is with the Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9, Canada. Author Cadwallader is with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, 1302 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, Ill. Direct inquiries to author Alasalvar (E-mail: calasalvar@lincoln.ac.uk).
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  • N. DEMIR,

    1. Author Alasalvar is with the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Food Research Center, Univ. of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, United Kingdom. Authors Odabasi, Demir, and Balaban are with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Florida, PO Box 110370, Gainesville, Fla. Author Shahidi is with the Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9, Canada. Author Cadwallader is with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, 1302 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, Ill. Direct inquiries to author Alasalvar (E-mail: calasalvar@lincoln.ac.uk).
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  • M. Ö. BALABAN,

    1. Author Alasalvar is with the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Food Research Center, Univ. of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, United Kingdom. Authors Odabasi, Demir, and Balaban are with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Florida, PO Box 110370, Gainesville, Fla. Author Shahidi is with the Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9, Canada. Author Cadwallader is with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, 1302 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, Ill. Direct inquiries to author Alasalvar (E-mail: calasalvar@lincoln.ac.uk).
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  • F. SHAHIDI,

    1. Author Alasalvar is with the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Food Research Center, Univ. of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, United Kingdom. Authors Odabasi, Demir, and Balaban are with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Florida, PO Box 110370, Gainesville, Fla. Author Shahidi is with the Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9, Canada. Author Cadwallader is with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, 1302 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, Ill. Direct inquiries to author Alasalvar (E-mail: calasalvar@lincoln.ac.uk).
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  • K. R. CADWALLADER

    1. Author Alasalvar is with the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Food Research Center, Univ. of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, United Kingdom. Authors Odabasi, Demir, and Balaban are with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Florida, PO Box 110370, Gainesville, Fla. Author Shahidi is with the Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9, Canada. Author Cadwallader is with the Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, 1302 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, Ill. Direct inquiries to author Alasalvar (E-mail: calasalvar@lincoln.ac.uk).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT: Forty-six volatile compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with 31 being positively identified in all hazelnuts (6 tentative and 9 unknown). Çakildak variety contained the highest content of total volatiles, followed by Palaz, Mincane, Fosa, and Tombul, with no significant differences (P>0.05) between Tombul, Fosa, and Mincane. In total, 39, 37, 36, and 31 volatile compounds were determined for the 1st time in Tombul, (Çakildak and Mincane), Fosa, and Palaz, respectively. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that intensities of 7 flavor attributes had no significant differences (P > 0.05) among Tombul, Fosa, and Mincane. In contrast, Çakildak was rated as being significantly (P < 0.01) lower in most flavor attributes. Discriminant function analysis on the electronic nose (E-nose) sensor data resulted in 100% correct classification of the samples into their respective varieties. Certain E-nose sensor types correlated well with some volatile compounds.

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