• whey protein concentrate;
  • high hydrostatic pressure;
  • flavor binding;
  • fluorescence;
  • gas chromatography

ABSTRACT: The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on flavor-binding properties of whey protein concentrate (WPC) were determined with benzaldehyde, heptanone, octanone, and nonanone. After HHP treatment (600 MPa, 50 °C, for 0-, 10-, or 30-min holding time), flavor-binding properties of WPC were studied by intrinsic fluorescence titration and static headspace analysis. The HHP treatments increased the number of binding sites and the apparent dissociation constants of WPC for benzaldehyde. HHP treatment of WPC for 0 min increased the number of binding sites of WPC for heptanone and octanone. As observed by headspace analysis, HHP treatments did not result in significant changes in the flavor retention for benzaldehyde in WPC solutions. Flavor retention of 100 ppm and 200 ppm heptanone and octanone in HHP-treated (10 min) WPC was significantly lower than for untreated WPC and HHP-treated WPC for 0 min or 30 min. For flavor retention of nonanone, significant decreases were only observed at 100 ppm when WPC solutions were HHP-treated for 10 min. While use of HHP treatment of WPC has potential in real food systems, these findings demonstrate the importance of careful selection of HHP treatment times and flavor concentrations for desired outcomes in food applications.