Antioxidant Properties of Flavone C-Glycosides from Atractylodes japonica Leaves in Human Low-density Lipoprotein Oxidation

Authors

  • Young-Chan Kim,

    1. Author Kim is with Korea Food Research Institute, Ginseng Research Group, San 46-1, Baekhyun-dong, Bundang-gu, Sungnam, Gyeonggi 463-746, South Korea. Author Jun is with Department of Food Science, 65 Dudley Rd, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901. Author Jeong is with Food Science Institute, School of Food & Life Science, Inje University, 607 Obangdong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749, South Korea. Author Chung Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea. Direct inquiries to Author Jeong (jeongws@inje.ac.kr) and Author Chung (kchung@knu.ac.kr).
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  • Mira Jun,

    1. Author Kim is with Korea Food Research Institute, Ginseng Research Group, San 46-1, Baekhyun-dong, Bundang-gu, Sungnam, Gyeonggi 463-746, South Korea. Author Jun is with Department of Food Science, 65 Dudley Rd, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901. Author Jeong is with Food Science Institute, School of Food & Life Science, Inje University, 607 Obangdong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749, South Korea. Author Chung Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea. Direct inquiries to Author Jeong (jeongws@inje.ac.kr) and Author Chung (kchung@knu.ac.kr).
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  • Woo-Sik Jeong,

    1. Author Kim is with Korea Food Research Institute, Ginseng Research Group, San 46-1, Baekhyun-dong, Bundang-gu, Sungnam, Gyeonggi 463-746, South Korea. Author Jun is with Department of Food Science, 65 Dudley Rd, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901. Author Jeong is with Food Science Institute, School of Food & Life Science, Inje University, 607 Obangdong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749, South Korea. Author Chung Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea. Direct inquiries to Author Jeong (jeongws@inje.ac.kr) and Author Chung (kchung@knu.ac.kr).
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  • Shin-Kyo Chung

    1. Author Kim is with Korea Food Research Institute, Ginseng Research Group, San 46-1, Baekhyun-dong, Bundang-gu, Sungnam, Gyeonggi 463-746, South Korea. Author Jun is with Department of Food Science, 65 Dudley Rd, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901. Author Jeong is with Food Science Institute, School of Food & Life Science, Inje University, 607 Obangdong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749, South Korea. Author Chung Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea. Direct inquiries to Author Jeong (jeongws@inje.ac.kr) and Author Chung (kchung@knu.ac.kr).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT: Three antioxidant flavone C-glucosides, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin, were identified for the 1st time from Atractylodes japonica leaves by an activity-guided fractionation with various analytical techniques including column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities of these compounds were examined using electron spin resonance (ESR). Inhibitory activities of these compounds on human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were evaluated by malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), both representing intermediates of lipid peroxidation. These flavone C-glucosides displayed about 50% of scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals at the concentrations below 10 μM. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-equivalent activities of isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin at 1 mM were 31.37, 2.71, and 2.63 unit/mL, respectively. Isoorientin at 1 μM exhibited over 60% inhibition of MDA formed during copper-mediated human LDL oxidation. Amounts of free MDA in LDL treated with isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and control were 20.06, 40.73, 34.08, and 48.03 nM/mg protein, respectively. These compounds also prolonged the lag phase time of the conjugated diene formation. There was a positive correlation between the free radical scavenging activities and the inhibitory effects on the LDL oxidation of these compounds. These results suggest that the flavone C-glucosides isolated from the leaves of A japonica possess beneficial antioxidant properties against free radicals as well as LDL oxidation.

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