Antioxidant Capacity of Fruit Extracts of Blackberry (Rubus sp.) Produced in Different Climatic Regions

Authors

  • Josefina Reyes-Carmona,

    1. Authors Reyes-Carmona and Martínez-Peniche are with Univ. Autónoma de Querétaro, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Química, Centro Univ., Querétaro, Mexico. Authors Yousef and Lila are with Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1201 S. Dorner Dr., Urbana, IL 61801. Direct inquiries to author Lila (E-mail: imagemal@uiuc.edu).
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  • Gad G. Yousef,

    1. Authors Reyes-Carmona and Martínez-Peniche are with Univ. Autónoma de Querétaro, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Química, Centro Univ., Querétaro, Mexico. Authors Yousef and Lila are with Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1201 S. Dorner Dr., Urbana, IL 61801. Direct inquiries to author Lila (E-mail: imagemal@uiuc.edu).
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  • Ramon A. Martínez-Peniche,

    1. Authors Reyes-Carmona and Martínez-Peniche are with Univ. Autónoma de Querétaro, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Química, Centro Univ., Querétaro, Mexico. Authors Yousef and Lila are with Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1201 S. Dorner Dr., Urbana, IL 61801. Direct inquiries to author Lila (E-mail: imagemal@uiuc.edu).
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  • Mary Ann Lila

    1. Authors Reyes-Carmona and Martínez-Peniche are with Univ. Autónoma de Querétaro, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Química, Centro Univ., Querétaro, Mexico. Authors Yousef and Lila are with Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1201 S. Dorner Dr., Urbana, IL 61801. Direct inquiries to author Lila (E-mail: imagemal@uiuc.edu).
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ABSTRACT:

A range of blackberry genotypes harvested in different seasons and regions in Mexico (Michoacan) and in the United States (Pacific Northwest) were collected to determine their antioxidant capacity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total acidity, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, total phenols, and total anthocyanins, as well as the correlation between all these parameters, were determined for all treatments. Total acidity ranged from 4.22% in wild blackberry from Patzcuaro, Mexico, to 1.02% in ‘Evergreen’ from Woodburn, Oreg. These treatments were also the outliers in terms of ascorbic acid content. Cultivar ‘Brazos’ did not exhibit any significant differences in acidity or ascorbic acid as a consequence of the geographic origin or harvest season. The highest concentration of soluble solids was recorded for ‘Evergreen’ from Woodburn and relatively low soluble solids levels were recorded for all the Mexican treatments. Wild blackberry from Patzcuaro exhibited the highest values for ORAC, FRAP, total phenolic and anthocyanin content. Other relatively high antioxidant capacity values were detected for ‘Marion’ and ‘Evergreen’, both produced in Oregon. Different cultivars grown in the same region/season consistently showed differences in antioxidant capacity. There was little effect of harvest season on phenolic levels. We conclude that levels of total acidity, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, antioxidant capacity, and polyphenols mainly depended on the genotype and not on the climate or the season. ORAC and FRAP values were both highly correlated with each other, and with total phenols and anthocyanin content.

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