• Duck meat;
  • gas chromatography–mass spectrometry;
  • purge and trap;
  • simultaneous distillation–extraction;
  • solid phase microextration;
  • volatiles


In order to determine the entire flavour profile of traditional Chinese Nanjing marinated duck (NJMD), three sampling techniques including solid phase microextraction (SPME) with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibre, purge and trap (P&T) using Tenax-TA absorbent and simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) were compared. Total 116 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, authentic compounds and Krátz retention index, which included thirty-one aldehydes, four esters, fourteen alcohols, seven acids, twenty-five hydrocarbons, fifteen ketones, five N-containing compounds, eight S-containing compounds and seven furans. SPME and P&T methods provided better extraction for volatiles with low molecular masses, while SDE method extracted more heavy volatiles. In this study, SPME method was better than P&T method, and SPME with SDE method may well complement each other. Results indicated that major volatiles identified were oxidation and degradation products of fatty acids, which were considered to account for the typical flavour of traditional Chinese NJMD.