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Production of zero trans Iranian vanaspati using chemical transesterification and blending techniques from palm olein, rapeseed and sunflower oils


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Chemical transesterification and blending techniques were used for producing zero trans fats suitable for use as Iranian vanaspati. Triple blends of palm olein (POo), rapeseed (RSO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were subjected to two different treatments: (i) blending and then transesterification (BT) and (ii) transesterification of pure POo before blending with RSO and SFO (TB). The changes in slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), carbon number (CN) triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, induction period (IP) of oxidation at 120 °C and IP of crystallisation at 20 °C of blends before and after treatments were investigated. Both BT and TB methods resulted in an increase in the CN48 TAG molecules, SMP and SFC, and a decrease in the IP of oxidation and crystallisation of initial blends. Samples made by TB method had higher CN48 TAG content, SMP, SFC and IP of oxidation, and lower IP of crystallisation than those made by BT method. Correlation between SFC at 20 °C and saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of the treated blends indicated that the SFA must be higher than 33.1% and 26.8% for BT and TB methods, respectively, to obtain fats suitable for use as vanaspati.