Effects of Polymerized Whey Proteins on Consistency and Water-holding Properties of Goat's Milk Yogurt

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Abstract

ABSTRACT The effects of polymerized whey proteins (PWP) on functional properties of goat's milk yogurt were investigated. PWP were prepared by heating whey protein isolate (WPI) dispersion (8.0% protein, pH 7.0) at 90 °C for 30 min. Three reconstituted goat milk (RGM) (12% total solids [TS] as control; RGM with 2.4% unheated WPI; and RGM with 2.4% PWP) and 1 RGM with 16.7% TS were prepared and inoculated with 0.04% yogurt starter culture. Inoculated milk was incubated at 43 °C for 5 h, cooled to 4 °C in an ice-water bath, and then placed at refrigerator (4 °C) overnight before testing. Incorporation of PWP significantly (P < 0.001) increased the viscosity (by 80%) and decreased the syneresis (by 25%) of the yogurt samples, whereas addition of unheated WPI did not significantly affect the viscosity and syneresis compared with the control. There were no changes in pH, TS, ash, fat, protein, and lactose contents among yogurt samples except the solids fortified control. Yogurt with 16.7% TS had the lowest syneresis but did not improve in viscosity. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs demonstrated that the microstructure of the goat's milk yogurt gel with PWP was denser than the control. Results of this study indicate that polymerized whey proteins may be a novel protein-based thickening agent for improving the functional properties of goat's milk yogurt and other similar products.

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