Deliquescence Lowering in Food Ingredient Mixtures

Authors

  • Adnan K. Salameh,

    1. Authors Salameh and Taylor are with Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907. Author Mauer is with the Dept. of Food Science, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907. Direct inquiries to author Taylor (E-mail: ltaylor@pharmacy.purdue.edu).
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  • Lisa J. Mauer,

    1. Authors Salameh and Taylor are with Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907. Author Mauer is with the Dept. of Food Science, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907. Direct inquiries to author Taylor (E-mail: ltaylor@pharmacy.purdue.edu).
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  • Lynne S. Taylor

    1. Authors Salameh and Taylor are with Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907. Author Mauer is with the Dept. of Food Science, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907. Direct inquiries to author Taylor (E-mail: ltaylor@pharmacy.purdue.edu).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT Many common food ingredients (crystalline sugars, inorganic salts, and organic acids) exhibit deliquescence, a moisture-induced solid to solution phase transition that occurs at a characteristic relative humidity, RH0. An automated gravimetric water vapor sorption balance was used to measure RH0, and a water activity (aW) meter was used to measure aW of saturated solutions to characterize deliquescence of individual food ingredients and their mixtures. Measured RH0 and aW values were similar (P > 0.01), except for ingredients that form hydrates (confirmed by FT-Raman spectroscopy) and for mixtures containing more than 2 ingredients. A significantly lower (P < 0.01) RH0 was obtained for all mixtures compared with individual ingredients, and optical microscopy images demonstrated the impact of ingredient contact on RH0 lowering. Increasing temperature significantly decreased RH0 (P < 0.01). Results demonstrate that deliquescence lowering in ingredient mixtures has the potential to impact both chemical (for example, sucrose and citric acid mixtures) and physical stability (caking) of powdered ingredient mixtures.

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