• soybean defatting;
  • protein aqueous extraction;
  • functional properties;
  • protein functionality;
  • soybean protein isolate

ABSTRACT: In this study, the effects of alcohol defatting using ethanol, methanol, and non-alcoholic aqueous extraction methods on the yield, purity, and functionality of soy protein isolates were investigated. Soy protein extraction conditions were also modified (heat and mild acidic treatment before protein alkaline extraction, heat isoelectric precipitation, and non-neutral resolubilization of proteins), and the effects on the isolate properties were evaluated. Results showed that ethanol and aqueous extraction were potential alternatives to hexane. The soy protein isolates (SPI) obtained from these samples had protein contents of more than 90% and 84%, respectively, with functional properties comparable to those of SPI prepared from hexane defatted meal. Major differences were a decrease in the emulsifying activity properties of the SPIs resulting from the alternative defatting techniques, with, however, improved emulsion stability and foaming properties for the aqueous extracted SPIs. A marked decrease in the fat-holding capacity of the SPI made from methanol defatted meal was also noted. Modifying the protein isolation procedure also greatly influenced the functional properties of soy protein isolates. The results of the present investigation demonstrate that soy processing conditions can be modified to obtain soy proteins ingredients with specific functional properties.