Effect of Alkali Dipping on Dough and Final Product Quality

Authors

  • Ni Yao,

    1. Author Yao is with Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State Univ., Ames, Iowa. Authors Apenten and Seetharaman are with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, PA 16802. Author Zhu is with Natl. Center for Food Safety and Technology, Illinois Inst. of Technology, Summit-Argo, III. Direct inquiries to author Seetharaman (E-mail: Koushik@psu.edu).
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  • Richard Owusu-Apenten,

    1. Author Yao is with Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State Univ., Ames, Iowa. Authors Apenten and Seetharaman are with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, PA 16802. Author Zhu is with Natl. Center for Food Safety and Technology, Illinois Inst. of Technology, Summit-Argo, III. Direct inquiries to author Seetharaman (E-mail: Koushik@psu.edu).
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  • L. Zhu,

    1. Author Yao is with Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State Univ., Ames, Iowa. Authors Apenten and Seetharaman are with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, PA 16802. Author Zhu is with Natl. Center for Food Safety and Technology, Illinois Inst. of Technology, Summit-Argo, III. Direct inquiries to author Seetharaman (E-mail: Koushik@psu.edu).
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  • Koushik Seetharaman

    1. Author Yao is with Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State Univ., Ames, Iowa. Authors Apenten and Seetharaman are with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, PA 16802. Author Zhu is with Natl. Center for Food Safety and Technology, Illinois Inst. of Technology, Summit-Argo, III. Direct inquiries to author Seetharaman (E-mail: Koushik@psu.edu).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT: The effects of alkali dipping on starch, protein, and color changes in hard pretzel products have never been researched. Experiments were conducted to mimic reactions occurring on the pretzel dough surface. Dough was dipped in water or 1% sodium hydroxide solution at different temperatures between 50°C and 80°C. Protein and starch profile after dipping were analyzed. Color development on pretzel surface following the extraction of pigments from flour was investigated. Whole dough and pretzel samples were also made at pilot plant and the properties were analyzed. Only starch granules on the dough surface were gelatinized following dipping. Amylose-lipid complex dissociated at a lower temperature with alkali treatment but were not dissociated, even at high-temperature dipping in water. Treating the dough at 80°C in alkali solution resulted in the hydrolysis of proteins into smaller peptides that could be not precipitated by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Dough surface color was different following pigment extraction from flour but not significantly different following baking. The results suggest that the color that developed on pretzel surface was not due to pigments present in the flour but was contributed by the reaction within or between the starch and protein hydrolysis derivatives during baking.

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