Effect of Antioxidants and Cooking on Stability of n-3 Fatty Acids in Fortified Meat Products

Authors

  • Seok Lee,

    1. Authors Lee and Faustman are affiliated with the Dept. of Animal Science, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269. Author Hernandez is affiliated with the Dept de Ciencia Animal, Univ. Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Authors Decker and Djordjevic are affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. Author Faraji is affiliated with the Solae Co., St. Louis, Mo. Author Hollender is affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, Pa. Direct inquiries to author Faustman (E-mail: cameron.faustman@uconn.edu).
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  • Pilar Hernandez,

    1. Authors Lee and Faustman are affiliated with the Dept. of Animal Science, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269. Author Hernandez is affiliated with the Dept de Ciencia Animal, Univ. Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Authors Decker and Djordjevic are affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. Author Faraji is affiliated with the Solae Co., St. Louis, Mo. Author Hollender is affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, Pa. Direct inquiries to author Faustman (E-mail: cameron.faustman@uconn.edu).
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  • Darinka Djordjevic,

    1. Authors Lee and Faustman are affiliated with the Dept. of Animal Science, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269. Author Hernandez is affiliated with the Dept de Ciencia Animal, Univ. Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Authors Decker and Djordjevic are affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. Author Faraji is affiliated with the Solae Co., St. Louis, Mo. Author Hollender is affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, Pa. Direct inquiries to author Faustman (E-mail: cameron.faustman@uconn.edu).
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  • Habibollah Faraji,

    1. Authors Lee and Faustman are affiliated with the Dept. of Animal Science, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269. Author Hernandez is affiliated with the Dept de Ciencia Animal, Univ. Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Authors Decker and Djordjevic are affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. Author Faraji is affiliated with the Solae Co., St. Louis, Mo. Author Hollender is affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, Pa. Direct inquiries to author Faustman (E-mail: cameron.faustman@uconn.edu).
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  • Ruth Hollender,

    1. Authors Lee and Faustman are affiliated with the Dept. of Animal Science, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269. Author Hernandez is affiliated with the Dept de Ciencia Animal, Univ. Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Authors Decker and Djordjevic are affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. Author Faraji is affiliated with the Solae Co., St. Louis, Mo. Author Hollender is affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, Pa. Direct inquiries to author Faustman (E-mail: cameron.faustman@uconn.edu).
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  • Cameron Faustman,

    1. Authors Lee and Faustman are affiliated with the Dept. of Animal Science, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269. Author Hernandez is affiliated with the Dept de Ciencia Animal, Univ. Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Authors Decker and Djordjevic are affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. Author Faraji is affiliated with the Solae Co., St. Louis, Mo. Author Hollender is affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, Pa. Direct inquiries to author Faustman (E-mail: cameron.faustman@uconn.edu).
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  • Eric A. Decker

    1. Authors Lee and Faustman are affiliated with the Dept. of Animal Science, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269. Author Hernandez is affiliated with the Dept de Ciencia Animal, Univ. Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Authors Decker and Djordjevic are affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. Author Faraji is affiliated with the Solae Co., St. Louis, Mo. Author Hollender is affiliated with Dept. of Food Science, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, Pa. Direct inquiries to author Faustman (E-mail: cameron.faustman@uconn.edu).
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  • This work was supported by the grant 2001-4526 from Nutritional Impacts of Functional Food Program, IFAFS, CSREES, USDA, and the Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut. Sensory evaluation was conducted at the Sensory Evaluation Laboratory in the Food Science Dept. of Pennsylvania State Univ.

Abstract

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to determine the effect of processing and cooking on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) stability and to determine the efficacy of antioxidants (ANTI) to minimize lipid oxidation in cooked n-3 PUFA-fortified meat products. An emulsion of n-3 PUFAs (25% algal oil) was incorporated into ground turkey, pork sausages, or restructured hams (500 mg n-3 PUFA/110 g meat) with or without an “antioxidant cocktail” containing citrate (0.5% w/w), erythorbate (1 g/kg product), and rosemary (0.2% w/w). Ground turkey and pork sausages were frozen 2 d, then cooked to 71°C, and stored at 4°C for 2 d. Cooked, restructured hams were sliced, vacuum packaged, and stored at 4°C, or frozen and thawed with subsequent storage at 4°C. Treatments were CON (control), n-3 (n-3 PUFAs), CON + ANTI and n-3 + ANTI. Products were analyzed for color, lipid oxidation (TBARS and peroxide values), and n-3 PUFA profile. TBARS of n-3 PUFA-fortified treatments in ground turkey and pork sausages increased with storage (P < 0.05); there were no changes in TBARS for CON + ANTI and n-3 + ANTI groups (P > 0.05). For restructured hams nitrite curing appeared to delay lipid oxidation such that antioxidant treatment effects were unobservable (P > 0.05). Overall recovery of n-3 PUFAs after heat processing was 69% to 85%, and there was no effect of storage on n-3 PUFA concentration in raw or cooked products (P > 0.05). Sensory scores for n-3 treated restructured hams were lower than controls (P < 0.05). Results suggested that cooking resulted in some losses of n-3 PUFAs in fortified meat products and that an “antioxidant cocktail” protected against lipid oxidation during subsequent storage in non-cured meat products.

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