• dynamic headspace/GC-MS;
  • electronic nose;
  • front-face fluorescence spectroscopy;
  • lipid oxidation;
  • sensory analysis

ABSTRACT: Analytical methods that can detect early stages of lipid oxidation in complex food matrixes are highly needed, and the interest in rapid methods is great. In the present study, sensory analysis, dynamic headspace/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, and an electronic nose were used to detect early lipid oxidation in salmon pâté. The pâté was enriched with cod liver oil to increase the n-3 content, and citric acid (CA) or calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) were used as metal chelators. The sensory panel, GC-MS, and fluorescence methods detected oxidative changes in the pâté after 4 wk of storage. The fluorescence intensity increased with time. More volatile lipid oxidation products were formed in pâté with cod liver oil than in pâté without oil, but no differences were found between the batches with regard to rancid odor and flavor. CA and EDTA slightly promoted formation of volatile oxidation products. EDTA had a small positive impact on the sensory perception of the samples, whereas CA did not work favorably. With better packaging and antioxidant protection, n-3 enriched salmon pâté could be viable. Front-face fluorescence and dynamic headspace/GC-MS could be well suited to monitor lipid oxidation in such products.