• Almond;
  • cinnamon;
  • descriptive sensory analysis;
  • GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry);
  • lemon;
  • volatile compounds


A la piedraturrón is the simplest version of turrón and was used as model matrix to add a functional ingredient: bee propolis (0.05%). Propolis possesses antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties; however, its flavour is quite intense and not expected in confections. The aroma profiles of control and functional ‘a la piedra’ (ALP) turrón were studied. A total of fifty-nine compounds were detected, including mainly terpenes (twenty-one), terpenoids (fourteen) and aldehydes (eight). Most of these compounds come from lemon peel (thirty-four out of fifty-nine). However, descriptive sensory analysis proved that other attributes, such as toasted, nutty, cinnamon, sweet and aftertaste, were also of importance. The addition of propolis at the selected ratio did not changed neither the instrumental aroma profile nor the descriptive sensory profile of this confection but will improve its health benefits by incorporating into the consumers’ diet 50 mg propolis per 100 g of functional ALP turrón.