• Fat crystallisation;
  • lipids;
  • oils;
  • processing conditions;
  • rheology;
  • solid fat content;
  • viscosity


This study reports the use of upgraded ultrasonic velocity profiling with pressure difference methodology; extended from previous work demonstrating true in-line rheological and solid fat content (SFC) characterisation of complex opaque fat blends, subjected to scaled dynamic processing conditions. The experimental results have successfully confirmed previous non-invasive, in-line measurements for instantaneous velocity and rheological profiling of complex opaque fat blends [International Journal of Food Science and Technology43 (2008) 2083]. A method for in-line measurements under dynamic processing conditions to obtain the SFC of a fat blend was developed and successfully tested for a 30% palm stearin and 70% rapeseed oil system over a temperature range of 10–40 °C. These measurements correlated well with standard SFC values from pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) measurements deviating not more than +/– 2% SFC points from the standard p-NMR values.