Quality variations in flours used for pretzel manufacturing


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Research on the flour properties and their influence on pretzel characteristics is scarce. In the first part of the study, flour protein quantity and quality, flour pasting properties and solvent retention properties of 108 flour samples were investigated to help profile the flour properties used by the pretzel industry. Four different flours with a wider protein range than what was revealed in the flour evaluation were selected to produce pretzels and to determine the relationship between flour properties and the final product quality. Pretzel hardness, colour and pasting properties were used as a measure of pretzel quality. Results indicated that hard wheat flour would produce a harder pretzel but would not affect the surface colour of final product. However, soft wheat flour with a lower damaged starch, low water absorption levels and lower water binding powers during operations is desired for making hard pretzel.