This study was conducted to identify and assess the critical control points (CCPs) in groundnut-based food production in southern Brazil in order to reduce or eliminate aflatoxin contamination. This methodology has been suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Reception of prime matter, groundnut storage, roasting and thermal treatment were the main CCPs identified. Critical factors were the determination of aflatoxin, moisture content and water activity (Aw) during groundnut reception and storage, control of temperature, roasting time and thermal treatment in the groundnut-based food manufacturing. The critical limit for moisture was 8.2% and 0.6 was established for Aw. In Brazil, the limit for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 has been established at 20 ppb. Temperatures of 180 °C/1 h and 80 °C/40 min were established for roasting and thermal treatment stages of groundnut-based food, respectively.