Composite wheat–germinated brown rice flours: selected physicochemical properties and bread application

Authors

  • Phantipha Charoenthaikij,

    1.  Department of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, 50 Pahonyothin Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
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    • Present address: Faculty of Agricultural Product Innovation and Technology, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110, Thailand.

  • Kamolwan Jangchud,

    Corresponding author
    1.  Department of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, 50 Pahonyothin Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
      Correspondent: Fax: +662 562 5005;
      e-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th
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  • Anuvat Jangchud,

    1.  Department of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, 50 Pahonyothin Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
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  • Witoon Prinyawiwatkul,

    1.  Department of Food Science, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4200, USA
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  • Hong Kyoon No

    1.  Department of Food Science and Technology, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang 712-702, Korea
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Correspondent: Fax: +662 562 5005;
e-mail: fagikwj@ku.ac.th

Summary

Selected physicochemical properties of composite [wheat/germinated brown rice (GBRF)/germinated glutinous brown rice (GGNBRF)] flours at 100:0:0 (control), 70:30:0, 60:30:10, 60:40:0 and 50:40:10 (%) were evaluated. Germination (steeping at pH 3 for 24 h at 35 °C) increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid from 2.11 to 32.7 and 2.41 to 30.69 mg per 100 g flour for GBRF and GGNBRF, respectively. The 60:30:10 and 50:40:10 composite flours exhibited the lower peak viscosity (70.42 and 68.54 RVU, respectively). The setback viscosity of composite flours containing GGNBR was significantly lower than other flours. The presence of GBRF and GGNBRF significantly lowered specific volume and expansion ratio of breads. However, all sensory liking scores, except for appearance, were not significantly different among composite flour breads. Overall liking scores of all breads ranged from 6.8 to 7.2 (like moderately). This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating GBRF and GGNBRF up to 50% by weight in bread formulations without compromising sensory liking.

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