• Bread;
  • gamma-aminobutyric acid;
  • germinated rice flour;
  • glutinous brown rice;
  • physicochemical properties;
  • rice flour;
  • sensory acceptability


Selected physicochemical properties of composite [wheat/germinated brown rice (GBRF)/germinated glutinous brown rice (GGNBRF)] flours at 100:0:0 (control), 70:30:0, 60:30:10, 60:40:0 and 50:40:10 (%) were evaluated. Germination (steeping at pH 3 for 24 h at 35 °C) increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid from 2.11 to 32.7 and 2.41 to 30.69 mg per 100 g flour for GBRF and GGNBRF, respectively. The 60:30:10 and 50:40:10 composite flours exhibited the lower peak viscosity (70.42 and 68.54 RVU, respectively). The setback viscosity of composite flours containing GGNBR was significantly lower than other flours. The presence of GBRF and GGNBRF significantly lowered specific volume and expansion ratio of breads. However, all sensory liking scores, except for appearance, were not significantly different among composite flour breads. Overall liking scores of all breads ranged from 6.8 to 7.2 (like moderately). This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating GBRF and GGNBRF up to 50% by weight in bread formulations without compromising sensory liking.