• Bread;
  • dough;
  • sodium reduction;
  • sodium replacers


Dietary sodium reduction is an important risk factor in the development of hypertension. As salted, yeast-leavened products are a major source of dietary sodium, the baking industry needs to explore ways to reduce sodium in its products. Therefore, the impact of NaCl on shelf life, rheology and technological attributes as well as on the sensory quality of yeast-leavened products needs to be understood. This review offers essential background knowledge about the effects of NaCl reduction on dough and yeast-leavened products as well as techniques for reduction. Further, this review suggests paths of future research, including the overall impact of various NaCl levels on dough rheology and end product quality (yeast-leavening rate, crumb texture, staling rate and retrogradation) and a global, detailed consideration of the effect of a comprehensive range of NaCl on the main flour components (starch and protein).