Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites widely found in fruits, mostly represented by flavonoids and phenolic acids. The growing interest in these substances is mainly because of their antioxidant potential and the association between their consumption and the prevention of some diseases. The health benefits of these phytochemicals are directly linked to a regular intake and their bioavailability. Studies have shown the importance of the regular consumption of fruits, especially for preventing diseases associated with oxidative stress. In the present review, the most recent articles dealing with polyphenols in fruits are reviewed, focusing on their occurrence, main methods of extraction, quantification and antioxidant assays. In addition, the health benefits and bioaccessibility/bioavailability of phenolic compounds in fruits are addressed.