Formulation optimisation of vegetable flour–loaded functional bread. Part II: effect of the flour hydration on the bread quality


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In this work, the hydration process of durum wheat–based functional bread loaded with yellow pepper flour was optimised. In particular, the investigated vegetable flour and durum wheat semolina were mixed after they were separately hydrated. Three different amounts of water added to the yellow pepper flour were studied for assessing the effect of vegetable flour hydration level on the dough development and overall quality of bread. The bread formulation investigated in a previous work, based on 25% of yellow pepper and 2% of guar seed as structuring agent where the vegetable flour was directly added to the hydrated durum wheat semolina dough, was chosen as control sample. Results highlighted that dough samples with yellow pepper flour hydrated at highest water content showed a rheological behaviour similar to the durum wheat dough. Moreover, creep analysis showed that the sample added with no-hydrated yellow pepper flour recorded the greatest resistance to deformation. Same results were obtained for the dough tensile and bread compression tests. The use of the hydrated yellow pepper flour also improved all sensorial attributes.