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Ultrasound-assisted extraction of quercetin from onion solid wastes


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The extraction of quercetin with aqueous ethanol solutions from onion solid waste under sonication conditions was investigated using rational experimental design methodologies. It was found that the ethanol concentration (40–80%, v/v) and the temperature (40–60 °C) of extraction are the most influential parameters in the recovery yield, whereas pH (2–6), liquid/solid ratio (30–60 mL g−1) and extraction time (15–35 min) do not significantly influence the completeness of the extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were determined to be an ethanol percentage of 59% and extraction temperature of 49 °C, yielding a total quercetin content of 11.08 mg per g dry weight of onion solid waste. An empirical relationship between extraction parameters and the extraction yield was suggested and verified.