• Energy;
  • proximate;
  • sensory acceptability;
  • tef–flaxseed injera;
  • total phenolics


Injera from tef substituted with two flaxseed forms at 3%, 6% and 9% and control injera showed substitution had a significant effect on injera proximate, energy, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolics (TP) contents and sensory acceptability. Flaxseed forms had influence on moisture, fibre, total carbohydrate (TC) and TA. With 9% flour and whole flaxseed substitution, percentage energy, moisture, ash, crude protein, fibre and TA increase were 3.5, 27.3, 25.9, 20.4, 114.3 and 10.1, respectively. TC and pH were high for control. In all injera samples, condensed tannins and free fatty acid were insignificant. With an increase in the flaxseed substitution, most sensory acceptance increased, whereas injera eyes and colour decreased and appeared superior for control (100% tef injera). The 9% flaxseed-substituted injera showed good proximate nutritional and energy contents of functional potential of high in dietary fibre, alpha linolenic acid, lignans, proteins and TP of anti-oxidant nature.