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Functional components of grape pomace: their composition, biological properties and potential applications


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The roles of functional foods on human health have been realised by more and more researchers, food producers and consumers. Functional food ingredients from both plant and animal sources such as dietary fibre, soy protein isolate, whey protein isolate and omega 3 fatty acid have been widely used in functional food product development. Many fruit processing by-products such as grape, apple and orange peels are rich in bioactive phytochemicals, dietary fibre and unsaturated fatty acids, hence have potential to serve as functional food ingredients. In this review, we summarise recent advancement of research in grape pomace (GP), the residual of grapes after wine making. The polyphenol profile of GP and their biological, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the stability of GP polyphenols in food system, the interaction between GP polyphenol and other food ingredients, as well as the functionalities of grape seed oil and GP fibre are covered.