Evolution of amino acids and biogenic amines in natural ciders as a function of the year and the manufacture steps

Authors

  • Gaizka Garai-Ibabe,

    Corresponding author
    • Departamento de Química Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), San Sebastián, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Ana Irastorza,

    1. Departamento de Química Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), San Sebastián, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • María Teresa Dueñas,

    1. Departamento de Química Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), San Sebastián, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Pedro J. Martín-Álvarez,

    1. Departamento de Biotecnología y Microbiología de Alimentos, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación (CIAL) (CSIC-UAM), Madrid, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Victoria M. Moreno-Arribas

    1. Departamento de Biotecnología y Microbiología de Alimentos, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación (CIAL) (CSIC-UAM), Madrid, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author

Correspondent: Fax: +34 943 01 5270; e-mail: gaizka.garai@ehu.es

Summary

The evolution of biogenic amines and other nitrogen compounds during the elaboration period of natural ciders in two successive seasons and two types of presses was studied. The harvest year affects the concentrations of most of the amino acids, while few of them were affected by the type of press. Asparagine and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids in fresh musts followed by α-alanine, α-aminobutyric acid, glutamine and glutamic acid. The mean concentrations of these amino acids in the fresh musts from the two harvest years were 12.35, 11.12, 6.45, 6.29, 5.28 and 4.87 mg L−1, respectively. During cidermaking, a decrease in the sum of all amino acids was detected (from 128 ± 54.311 mg L−1 to 22.5 ± 4.863 mg L−1 in 2005 and from 72.2 ± 15.256 mg L−1 to 6.5 ± 4.112 mg L−1 in 2006). Furthermore, significant differences in the concentration of most amino acids related to harvest year were observed. Concerning the biogenic amine content, putrescine was the main and the only amine present in all musts (3.72 ± 1.68 mg L−1) and ciders (3.59 ± 1.83 mg L−1). Histamine was the second biogenic amine of quantitative importance in final ciders (1.15 ± 0.69 mg L−1), and tyramine was only detected in one of the cidermaker cellars at the end of the elaboration period. The low concentrations of biogenic amines in ciders were attributed to the low contents of the corresponding precursor amino acids and do not affect to cider quality.

Ancillary