Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of Ghure (unripe grape) marc extract: influence of extraction time, temperature and solvent type

Authors

  • Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi,

    1. Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Seyede M. Hosseini,

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Brijesh Tiwari,

    1. Hollings Faculty, Manchester Food Research Centre, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
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  • Maryam Hashemi,

    1. Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    2. Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Biosafety, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran
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  • Ghasem Fadavi,

    1. Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Ramin Khaksar

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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Correspondent: Fax: +98 21 22376480; e-mails: Sm_hosseini@nnftri.ac.ir; r.khaksar@sbmu.ac.ir

Summary

The objective of this study was to optimise the temperature (25–50 °C), time (1–24 h) and the solvent ratio (ethanol/water, 0–100%) for the phenolic compounds extraction of Ghure marc (unripe grape) using response surface methodology. The central composite design (CCD) generated satisfactory models for the optimisation of process variables. The results revealed that the ratio (X3) was the most significant parameter on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity [% 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)], and there was a significant correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The optimal conditions for temperature and time were 44.93 °C and 19.34 h, respectively, and the ratio of ethanol to water was 70.08, which verified with carrying out confirmatory experiments. Under this condition, TPC and %DPPH were 388.79 mg GAE per 100 g and 91.01, respectively. The results of this study revealed that the Ghure marc can be used as a low-cost source of natural antioxidant in food.

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