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Keywords:

  • C-clamp;
  • music;
  • nursing;
  • pain;
  • percutaneous coronary interventions;
  • randomized controlled trial

Aim.  This paper reports a study to determine the effect of music on physiological parameters and level of pain in patients undergoing application of a C-clamp after percutaneous coronary interventions.

Background.  Most percutaneous coronary interventions are performed through the femoral artery. In order to stop bleeding and achieve homeostasis, a C-clamp is used after percutaneous coronary interventions. However, the experience is painful for patients and they inevitably suffer discomfort. Pain may lead to stress responses and may affect the physical and mental health of patients. One potential beneficial practice is having the patient listen to relaxing music, which might have the effect of reducing situational discomfort and pain.

Methods.  A randomized controlled study was conducted during the period September 2004 to March 2005. Forty-three people (20 experimental and 23 control) were recruited from the intensive care units of two acute care hospitals in Hong Kong. Physiological and psychological variables were collected at baseline and at 15, 30 and 45 minutes.

Results.  In the music group, there were statistically significant reductions (P = 0·001) in heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation than the control participants at 45 minutes. In the music group, statistically significant reductions (P = 0·001) in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were found at the four time points, but not in the control group. No statistically significant differences were found at baseline comparison of the two groups, but statistically significant differences in pain scores were found at 45 minutes for participants in the music group compared with the control group (P = 0·003). Participants in the control group showed statistically significant increases in pain at 45 minutes compared with baseline (P < 0·001).

Conclusions.  The benefits of preventing physiological reactions to pain were demonstrated. Music is a simple, safe and effective method of reducing potentially harmful physiological and psychological responses arising from pain.