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Keywords:

  • African-American men;
  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge;
  • barriers to condoms;
  • condoms;
  • human immunodeficiency virus;
  • nursing;
  • self-efficacy

Abstract

Title. Determinants of perceived barriers to condom use among HIV-infected middle-aged and older African-American men

Aim.  This paper is a report of a study to describe which determinants best predict perceived barriers to condom use during sexual encounters among human immunodeficiency virus human immunodeficiency virus-infected African-American men, middle-aged and older, living in the United States of America.

Background.  While the global epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection is a well-documented phenomenon with national and international implications, prevalence statistics indicate that middle-aged and older African-American (non-Hispanic) men have not benefited from the prevention efforts implemented during the past two decades.

Method.  A cross-sectional design using a survey and convenience sampling was adopted between September 2003 and July 2004 to recruit n = 130 middle-aged human immunodeficiency virus-infected African-American men from infectious disease clinics from the Mid-Atlantic region in the United States of America. The survey covered demographics, perceived health beliefs, spiritual well-being and symptoms related to human immunodeficiency virus.

Findings.  Stepwise multiple regression showed having fewer human immunodeficiency virus-related symptoms associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (P = 0·004) and being single (P = 0·05) were perceived as barriers to condom use during sexual encounters (R2 = 0·029, P = 0·046).

Conclusion.  Tailored interventions are needed for African-American men, middle-aged and older, infected with human immunodeficiency virus nationally and worldwide that are designed to decrease perceived barriers in order to increase condom use.