Development and validation of a brief Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Nurses

Authors

  • Renato Pisanti,

    1. Renato Pisanti BSc MA Research Assistant Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, ‘Sapieza’ University of Rome, Italy
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  • Caterina Lombardo,

    1. Caterina Lombardo BSc MA PhD Associate Professor in Clinical Psychology Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, ‘Sapieza’ University of Rome, Italy
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  • Fabio Lucidi,

    1. Fabio Lucidi BSc MA PhD Associate Professor in Methodology and Psychometrics Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, ‘Sapieza’ University of Rome, Italy
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  • David Lazzari,

    1. David Lazzari BSc MA PhD Clinical Psychologist Section of Clinical Health Psychology, Hospital ‘S. Maria’, Terni, Italy
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  • Mario Bertini

    1. Mario Bertini BSc MD PhD Full Professor in Health Psychology Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, ‘Sapieza’ University of Rome, Italy
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R. Pisanti:
e-mail: renato.pisanti@uniroma1.it

Abstract

Title. Development and validation of a brief Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Nurses

Aim.  This paper is a report of a study to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy for Nurses Scale.

Background.  Coping self-efficacy beliefs are defined as self-appraisals of capabilities to cope with environmental demands. People with higher levels of coping self-efficacy beliefs tend to approach challenging situations in an active and persistent way, whereas those with lower levels of coping self-efficacy beliefs tend to direct greater energy to managing increasing emotional distress.

Method.  In 2006, 1383 nurses completed the following measures: Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Nurses, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations Short Form and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Based on a randomized split of the data, we conducted exploratory factor analysis on group 1 data (n = 691) and confirmatory factor analysis within the framework of structural equation modelling on group 2 data (n = 692).

Findings.  The exploratory results revealed two factors: Coping Self-Efficacy to cope with the occupational burden (Cronbach alpha = 0·77) and Coping Self-Efficacy to cope with the relational burden (alpha = 0·79). In the confirmatory group, the two-factor structure was tested against an alternative one-factor structure and confirmed as the best solution. Correlation patterns between the Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy for Nurses Scales, and both coping and burnout variables, supported the criterion-related validity of the Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy for Nurses dimensions.

Conclusion.  Nurses can have two basic and distinct coping self-efficacy beliefs: beliefs about occupational burden and beliefs about relational difficulties in the workplace. Research is needed into how efficacy evaluations shift as a result of specific stress management interventions.

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