• Chinese;
  • Health Quotient questionnaire;
  • holistic health;
  • nursing;
  • psychometric testing;
  • undergraduates

guo j., dixon j.k., whittemore r. & he g.-p. (2010) Psychometric testing of the Health Quotient questionnaire: a measure of self-reported holistic health. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(3), 653–663.


Aim.  This paper is a report of a test of the psychometric properties of the Health Quotient questionnaire.

Background.  The Health Quotient questionnaire is an existing self-reported holistic health measure developed by integrating Western and Eastern perspectives, but limited psychometric properties have been reported.

Methods.  Content validity was estimated by five experts. A pilot study allowed for feasibility testing and examination of reliability and validity. A total of 1874 Chinese college undergraduates took part in the study in 2007–2008. Internal consistency reliability of the five dimensions (Self-Care, Health Knowledge, Lifestyle, Mind Health and Life Skills) of the Health Quotient questionnaire was examined and item-to-dimension score correlation analysis was also completed. Construct validity was determined using the convergent validity, hypothesis testing approach and factor analysis. The single-item self-rated health status assessment by the American College Health Association-National Council was used to measure health status.

Results.  Strong content validity and internal consistency reliability correlations were demonstrated. Test-retest reliability was acceptable, ranging from 0·72 to 0·82 for the five dimensions. Statistically significant relationships between the Health Quotient’s total and dimension scores with self-rated health status (< 0·001) provided evidence of convergent validity. In exploration of the factor structure by dimensions, four of five dimensions were consistent with the theoretical framework, with only the Life Skills dimension demonstrating lack of theoretical fit.

Conclusion.  The results provide some evidence for the reliability and validity of the Health Quotient questionnaire, as well as several recommendations for further research on the questionnaire.