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Cigarette dependence questionnaire: development and psychometric testing with male smokers


H.-H. Wang: e-mail:


huang c.-l., lin h.-h. & wang h.-h. (2010) Cigarette dependence questionnaire: development and psychometric testing with male smokers. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2341–2349.


Aim.  This paper is a report of a study conducted to develop and test a theoretically derived Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire for adult male smokers.

Background.  Fagerstrom questionnaires have been used worldwide to assess cigarette dependence. However, these assessments lack any theoretical perspective. A theory-based approach is needed to ensure valid assessment.

Methods.  In 2007, an initial pool of 103 Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire items was distributed to 109 adult smokers in Taiwan. Item analysis was conducted to select items for inclusion in the refined scale. The psychometric properties of the Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire were further evaluated 2007–08, when it was administered to 256 respondents and their saliva was collected and analysed for cotinine levels. Criterion validity was established through the Pearson correlation between the scale and saliva cotinine levels. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test construct validity. Reliability was determined with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and a 2-week test–retest coefficient.

Results.  The selection of 30 items for seven perspectives was based on item analysis. One factor accounting for 44·9% of the variance emerged from the factor analysis. The factor was named as cigarette dependence. Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire scores were statistically significantly correlated with saliva cotinine levels (= 0·21, = 0·01). Cronbach’s alpha was 0·95 and test–retest reliability using an intra-class correlation was 0·92.

Conclusion.  The Cigarette Dependence Questionnaire showed sound reliability and validity and could be used by nurses to set up smoking cessation interventions based on assessment of cigarette dependence.