Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test: psychometric testing

Authors

  • Gulten Guvenc,

    1. Gulten Guvenc PhD RN Lecturer Obstetric Gynecologic Nursing Department, School of Nursing, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
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  • Aygul Akyuz,

    1. Aygul Akyuz PhD RN Associate Professor Obstetric Gynecologic Nursing Department, School of Nursing, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
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  • Cengiz Han Açikel

    1. Cengiz Han Açikel MD Associate Professor Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
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A. Akyuz:
e-mail: aygulakyuz@yahoo.com

Abstract

guvenc g., akyuz a. & açikel c.h. (2011) Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test: psychometric testing. Journal of Advanced Nursing67(2), 428–437.

Abstract

Aim.  This study is a report of the development and psychometric testing of the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test.

Background.  While the Champion Health Belief Model scales have been tested extensively for breast cancer and screening for this, evaluation of these scales in explaining the beliefs of women with regard to cervical cancer and the Pap Smear Test has only received limited attention.

Methods.  This methodological research was carried out in Turkey in 2007. The data were collected with 237 randomly selected women who met the criteria for inclusion and agreed to participate in this study. The Champion Health Belief Model scales were translated into Turkish, adapted for cervical cancer, validated by professional experts, translated back into English and pilot-tested.

Findings.  Factor analysis yielded five factors: Pap smear benefits and health motivation, Pap smear barriers, seriousness, susceptibility and health motivation. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the five subscales ranged from 0·62 to 0·86, and test–retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0·79 to 0·87 for the subscales.

Conclusion.  The Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test was found to be a valid and reliable tool in assessing the women’s health beliefs. Understanding the beliefs of women in respect of cervical cancer and the Pap Smear Test will help healthcare professionals to develop more effective cervical cancer screening programmes.

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