• emergency department;
  • healthcare professionals;
  • instrument development;
  • patient participation;
  • psychometric testing

frank c., asp m., fridlund b. & baigi a. (2011) Questionnaire for patient participation in emergency departments: development and psychometric testing. Journal of Advanced Nursing67(3), 643–651.


Aim.  The aim of the study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a patient participation questionnaire in emergency departments.

Background.  Patient participation is an important indicator of the quality of healthcare. International and national healthcare policy guidelines promote patient participation. While patients cared for in emergency departments generally express dissatisfaction with their care, a review of the literature fails to reveal any scientifically tested instruments for assessing patient participation from the perspective of patients.

Methods.  A methodological study was conducted involving a convenience sample of 356 patients recently cared for in emergency departments in Sweden. Data were collected in 2008 and analysed for construct and criterion validity, also homogeneity and stability reliability.

Results.  A 17-item questionnaire was developed. Two separate factor analyses revealed a distinct 4-factor solution which was labelled: Fight for participation, Requirement for participation, Mutual participation and Participating in getting basic needs satisfied. Criterion validity testing showed 9 out of 20 correlations above 0·30 and, of these, three were moderate correlations of 0·62, 0·63 and 0·70. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ranged from 0·63 to 0·84 and test–retest varied between 0·59 and 0·93.

Conclusion.  The results signify evidence of acceptable validity and reliability, and the questionnaire makes it possible to evaluate patient participation in emergency department caring situations. In addition, it produces data which are usable by a diverse range of healthcare professionals.