• Chinese version;
  • Diabetes Empowerment Process Scale;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • healthcare professionals;
  • nursing;
  • psychometric testing;
  • self-care

chen m.-f., wang r.-h., cheng c.-p., chin c.-c., stocker j., tang s.-m. & chen s.-w. (2010) Diabetes Empowerment Process Scale: development and psychometric testing of the Chinese version. Journal of Advanced Nursing67(1), 204–214.


Aim.  This paper is a report of the development and psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Diabetes Empowerment Process Scale.

Background.  In people living with diabetes, empowerment can improve metabolic and psychosocial outcomes. A scale for measuring empowerment processes can also help healthcare professionals to optimize their empowering actions and would improve their interactions with people living with diabetes.

Method.  Based on literature reviews and interviews with people living with diabetes, a 27-item Chinese Diabetes Empowerment Process Scale was developed. Fifteen items were produced after item analysis and content validity testing. To test construct validity, concurrent validity and internal consistency, 211 outpatients living with diabetes completed the Chinese Diabetes Empowerment Process Scale, a Self-care Behaviour Scale and a Diabetes Empowerment Scale. Test–retest reliability was also analysed with 30 patients. The study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Taiwan.

Results.  Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a second-order factorial model with four subscales and 15 items best fitted the data. The four subscales were Mutual participation, Raising awareness, Providing necessary information and Open communication. Scores on the Chinese Diabetes Empowerment Process Scale correlated statistically significantly with those on the Self-care Behaviour Scale (r = 0·21–0·40; P < 0·01) and Diabetes Empowerment Scale (r = 0·35–0·65; P < 0·01). Reliability was supported by acceptable Cronbach’s α (range: 0·73–0·91) and test–retest reliability scores (range: 0·75–0·83).

Conclusion.  The Chinese Diabetes Empowerment Process Scale has satisfactory validity and reliability for measuring the empowerment process of health professionals. Further studies are needed to test the applicability of the scale to other populations.