• Delphi technique;
  • nursing education;
  • reflection skills;
  • teacher competences

dekker-groen a.m., van der schaaf m.f. & stokking k.m. (2011) Teacher Competences required for developing reflection skills of nursing students. Journal of Advanced Nursing67(7), 1568–1579.


Aim.  This paper is a report of a study in senior secondary vocational education designed to develop a framework for teacher competences to support nursing students in developing their reflection skills.

Background.  For healthcare-related professions such as nursing, there is a growing attention for developing reflection skills. Little is known about teacher competences required to support the development of reflection skills in nursing students. Developing a framework of teacher competences can contribute to filling up this gap. These competences are described in 91 indicators distributed over six task domains.

Methods.  A Delphi study was conducted in the first half year of 2008 to get consensus on a framework of teacher competences required for creating the learning environment needed for developing reflection skills in nursing students. Experts judged teacher competences on a seven-point Likert-type scale.

Findings.  In the first round, mean scores on the teacher competences were already high. Minor revisions were needed. In the second round, mean scores increased, whereas standard deviations decreased in round 2 compared with round 1. These changes were statistically significant. Coaching was seen as most important task domain.

Conclusion.  Consensus has been reached on teacher competences to be used in nursing education to develop students’ reflection skills. The framework of competences may be a source for curriculum development concerning reflection skills and for teacher training programmes to coach nursing students’ reflections.