• caregiver burden;
  • culturally-sensitive healthcare;
  • family care;
  • filial piety;
  • formal care;
  • future care preferences;
  • modernization

khalaila r. & litwin h. (2011) Modernization and future care preferences: a cross-sectional survey of Arab Israeli caregivers. Journal of Advanced Nursing67(7), 1614–1624.


Aims.  This paper is a report of a study designed to examine the association between modernization and future care preferences among adult children caregivers of older Arab parents in Israel and to identify factors that may mediate the association.

Method.  Cross-sectional data were collected in 2006–2007 by a structured interview from 250 randomly sampled Arab-Israeli adult children caregivers (response rate = 94%). Respondents’ preference for formal and/or informal future care for themselves was regressed on selected predictor variables.

Results.  The vast majority of family caregivers would ‘prefer’ to be cared for by family members (76·4%). Urbanization level was a negative correlate of preference for future family care and a positive correlate of preference for future formal care. However, these associations were mediated by the extent of filial piety and caregiving burden. Filial piety was a positive predictor of preference for future family care (OR = 3·6, P < 0·01), and a negative predictor of preference for formal care (OR = 0·09, P < 0·01). Caregiving burden was a positive predictor of preferences for future formal care (OR = 5·15, < 0·01).

Conclusion.  Modernization has an impact on future care preferences in traditional cultures. In order to maintain informal family care, community nurses should examine ways to lessen the burden of care among family caregivers. They should also develop culturally sensitive services that will meet the evolving expectations and preferences that are held by the next generations of family caregivers.