garmon bibb s.c., padden d.l. & ferguson w. (2012) Moderators of access and utilization of clinical preventive services in older adults. Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(2), 335–348.
Aim. This paper reports a study exploring the relationships between potential moderators of access and utilization of clinical preventive services in a homogeneous sample of older adults with near universal health coverage.
Background. Advancements have occurred in eliminating financial and structural barriers to utilization of clinical preventive services (primary, secondary and tertiary prevention) in most developed countries, but variations in utilization continue. These variations may be attributed to non-social determinants of health moderators that impact utilization in older adults.
Methods. Theorized relationships were explored using questions from the United States Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey and a homogenous convenience sample of 202 older adults (mean age 84; sd 5·23) with near universal health coverage. Data collected across a 2 year period (2007–2009) were analysed using Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U and Hierarchical Logistic Regression.
Findings. Several logistic regression models of personal access (advised to lose weight, high blood pressure, high cholesterol); moderators (gender, perceived health status, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2); and clinical preventive services utilization (check-up in last 12 months; ever had colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy) showed statistically significant (P < 0·05) improvement in model fit by adding interaction terms (access X moderator).
Conclusion. Exploring the impact of moderators on utilization may yield more insight into variations than could be explained by measurement of the direct affect of having near universal health coverage alone.