• evidence-based practice;
  • nursing models;
  • nursing theory;
  • philosophy

mccrae n. (2012) Whither Nursing Models? The value of nursing theory in the context of evidence-based practice and multidisciplinary health care. Journal of Advanced Nursing68(1), 222–229.


Aim.  This paper presents a discussion of the role of nursing models and theory in the modern clinical environment.

Background.  Models of nursing have had limited success in bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Data sources.  Literature on nursing models and theory since the 1950s, from health and social care databases.

Discussion.  Arguments against nursing theory are challenged. In the current context of multidisciplinary services and the doctrine of evidence-based practice, a unique theoretical standpoint comprising the art and science of nursing is more relevant than ever.

Implications for nursing.  A theoretical framework should reflect the eclectic, pragmatic practice of nursing.

Conclusion.  Nurse educators and practitioners should embrace theory-based practice as well as evidence-based practice.