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Does postoperative ‘M’ technique® massage with or without mandarin oil reduce infants’ distress after major craniofacial surgery?

Authors

  • Marjan de Jong,

    1. Marjan de Jong MSc RN Senior Intensive Care Nurse and Clinical Epidemiologist Intensive Care, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Cees Lucas,

    1. Cees Lucas PhD Clinical Epidemiologist Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Hansje Bredero,

    1. Hansje Bredero NP RN Nurse Practioner Department of Plastic Surgery, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Leon van Adrichem,

    1. Leon van Adrichem MD PhD Pediatric Plastic Surgeon Department of Plastic Surgery, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Dick Tibboel,

    1. Dick Tibboel MD PhD Professor Research Intensive Care in Childhood Erasmus MC-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Monique van Dijk

    1. Monique van Dijk PhD Senior Researcher Quality of Care Intensive Care, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00624637.

M. van Dijk: e-mail: m.vandijk.3@erasmusmc.nl

Abstract

de jong m., lucas c., bredero h., van adrichem l., tibboel d. & van dijk m. (2011) Does postoperative ‘M’ technique® massage with or without mandarin oil reduce infants’ distress after major craniofacial surgery? Journal of Advanced Nursing68(6), 1748–1757.

Abstract

Aim.  This article is a report of a randomized controlled trial of the effects of ‘M’ technique® massage with or without mandarin oil compared to standard postoperative care on infants’ levels of pain and distress, heart rate and mean arterial pressure after major craniofacial surgery.

Background.  There is a growing interest in non-pharmacological interventions such as aromatherapy massage in hospitalized children to relieve pain and distress but well performed studies are lacking.

Methods.  This randomized controlled trial allocated 60 children aged 3–36 months after craniofacial surgery from January 2008 to August 2009 to one of three conditions; ‘M’ technique® massage with carrier oil, ‘M’ technique® massage with mandarin oil or standard postoperative care. Primary outcome measures were changes in COMFORT behaviour scores, Numeric Rating Scale pain and Numeric Rating Scale distress scores assessed from videotape by an observer blinded for the condition.

Results.  In all three groups, the mean postintervention COMFORT behaviour scores were higher than the baseline scores, but differences were not statistically significant. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure showed a statistically significant change across the three assessment periods in all three groups. These changes were not related with the intervention.

Conclusions.  Results do not support a benefit of ‘M’ technique® massage with or without mandarin oil in these young postoperative patients. Several reasons may account for this: massage given too soon after general anaesthesia, young patients’ fear of strangers touching them, patients not used to massage.

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