Development and psychometric testing of a new tool for detecting moral distress: the Moral Distress Thermometer

Authors

  • Lucia D. Wocial,

    1. Lucia D. Wocial PhD RN Nurse Ethicist, Adjunct Assistant Professor Charles Warren Fairbanks Center for Medical Ethics, Indiana University Health, Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
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  • Michael T. Weaver

    1. Michael T. Weaver PhD RN FAAN Professor, Director Statistical Service, Center for Nursing Research and Scholarship, Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
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L.D. Wocial: e-mail: lwocial@iuhealth.org

Abstract

Aim.  To report the development and psychometric testing of the Moral Distress Thermometer. The Moral Distress Thermometer is a new screening tool to measure moral distress in nurses who practise in the hospital setting.

Background.  Moral distress occurs when one knows the ethically correct thing to do, but is prevented from acting on that perceived obligation. It is a well documented phenomenon with negative consequences that may be experienced by nurses. Creating an instrument to effectively and efficiently measure moral distress in a timely way has been identified as a priority for nursing.

Design.  This study used a cross-sectional survey design.

Methods.  Data collection for this research occurred in 2009. Participants simultaneously completed either the adult or pediatric version of the Moral Distress Scale version 2009 and the Moral Distress Thermometer. A total of 529 participants from various clinical areas completed both tools.

Results.  Coefficients alpha were adequate for both Adult (0·90) and Pediatric (0·92) Moral Distress Scale 2009 scales. Statistically significant Pearson correlations were found for the Moral Distress Thermometer with Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 and higher Moral Distress Thermometer, Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 means for participants who had left or who considered leaving a position because of moral distress.

Conclusion.  These findings provide support for the validity of the Moral Distress Thermometer.

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