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Instrument translation and initial psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Self-Management of Type 1 Diabetes for Adolescents scale


Correspondence to G.-P. He: e-mail:



To translate the validated measure, Self-Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Adolescents, into the Mandarin Chinese language and to test the psychometric properties of the Chinese version.


Although research on self-management of Type 1 diabetes has been increasing over the past 20 years, few health-related instruments have been available in the Chinese language for youth with Type 1 diabetes.


A two-phase design was used in this study, including instrument translation and psychometric testing.


The instrument translation, from October 2008–April 2009, included three steps: forward translation, back translation, and comparison of versions via Translation Validity Index – with multiple rounds, group discussion, and achievement of consensus at each step. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version Schilling's Self-Management of Type 1 Diabetes for Adolescents scale was assessed in a convenience sample of 136 Chinese youth (ages 8–19) with Type 1 diabetes between June 2009–August 2009.


The internal consistency and test–retest reliabilities indicated generally good consistency and temporal stability of the Chinese version. Evidence of construct validity and criterion-related validity was obtained via correlations of subscales with established measures of diabetes adherence and quality of life and also with haemoglobin A1c. Results from hypothesis testing also supported construct validity.


The Chinese version of Self-Management of Type 1 Diabetes for Adolescents scale is sound and will facilitate cross-cultural studies, while also enabling nurses to monitor and enhance the diabetes self-management of Chinese youth with Type 1 diabetes.