SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Arnbom, T., Fedak, M.A. & Boyd, I.L. (1997) Factors affecting maternal expenditure in southern elephant seals during lactation. Ecology, 78, 471483.
  • Arnould, J.P.Y., Boyd, I.L. & Speakman, J.R. (1996) Measuring the body composition of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella): validation of hydrogen isotope dilution. Physiological Zoology, 69, 93116.
  • Barbraud, C. & Weimerskirch, H. (2001) Emperor penguins and climate change. Nature, 411, 183186.
  • Beauplet, G., Dubroca, L., Guinet, C., Cherel, Y., Dabin, W., Gagne, C. & Hindell, M. (2004) Foraging ecology of subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis breeding on Amsterdam Island: seasonal changes in relation to maternal characteristics and pup growth. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 273, 211225.
  • Biuw, M. (2003) Variations in body composition and energy utilisation by southern elephant seal pups over the first year. PhD Thesis, University of St Andrews, St Andrews.
  • Bowen, W.D., Oftedal, O.T., Boness, D.J. & Iverson, S.J. (1994) The effect of maternal age and other factors on birth mass in the harbour seal. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72, 814.
  • Bowen, W.D., Iverson, S.J., Boness, D.J. & Oftedal, O.T. (2001) Foraging effort, food intake and lactation performance depend on maternal mass in a small phocid seal. Functional Ecology, 15, 325334.
  • Boyd, I.L. (1998) Time and energy constraints in pinniped lactation. American Naturalist, 152, 717728.
  • Boyd, I.L. (2000) State-dependent fertility in pinnipeds: contrasting capital and income breeders. Functional Ecology, 14, 623630.
  • Bradshaw, C.J.A., Davis, L.S., Lalas, C. & Harcourt, R.G. (2000) Geographic and temporal variation in the condition of pups of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri): evidence for density dependence and differences in the marine environment. Journal of Zoology (London), 252, 4151.
  • Burnham, K.P. & Anderson, D.R. (2002) Model Selection and Multimodal Inference: a Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Cameron, M.F. & Siniff, D.B. (2004) Age-specific survival, abundance, and immigration rates of a Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) population in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82, 601615.
  • Carlini, A.R., Daneri, G.A., Márquez, M.E.I., Soave, G.E. & Poljak, S. (1997) Mass transfer from mothers to pups and mass recovery by mothers during the post-breeding foraging period in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) at King George Island. Polar Biology, 18, 305310.
  • Constable, A.J., De La Mare, W.K., Agnew, D.J., Everson, I. & Miller, D. (2000) Managing fisheries to conserve the Antarctic marine ecosystem: practical implementation of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 778791.
  • Costa, D.P., LeBoeuf, B.J., Huntley, A.C. & Ortiz, C.L. (1986) The energetics of lactation in the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal of Zoology (London), 209, 2133.
  • Crocker, D.E. & Costa, D.P. (2001a) Pinniped physiology. The Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 926931. Academic Press, New York.
  • Crocker, D.E., Williams, J.D., Costa, D.P. & Le Boeuf, B.J. (2001b) Maternal traits and reproductive effort in northern elephant seals. Ecology, 82, 35413555.
  • Croxall, J.P. (1992) Southern-Ocean environmental-changes – effects on seabird, seal and whale populations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biology Sciences, 338, 319328.
  • Croxall, J.P., Reid, K. & Prince, P.A. (1999) Diet, provisioning and productivity responses of marine predators to differences in availability of Antarctic krill. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 177, 115131.
  • Croxall, J.P., Trathan, P.N. & Murray, E.J. (2002) Environmental change and Antarctic seabird populations. Science, 297, 15101514.
  • Eisert, R., Oftedal, O.T., Lever, M., Ramdohr, S., Breier, B.H. & Barrell, G.K. (2005) Detection of food intake in a marine mammal using marine osmolytes and their analogues as dietary biomarkers. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 300, 213228.
  • Festa-Bianchet, M., Gaillard, J.-M. & Jorgensen, J.T. (1998) Mass- and density-dependent reproductive success and reproductive costs in a capital breeder. American Naturalist, 152, 367379.
  • Field, I.C., Bradshaw, C.J.A., McMahon, C.R., Harrington, J. & Burton, H.R. (2002) Effects of age, size and condition of elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on their intravenous anaesthesia with tiletamine and zolazepam. Veterinary Record, 151, 235240.
  • Gittleman, J.L. & Thompson, S.D. (1988) Energy allocation in mammalian reproduction. American Zoologist, 28, 863875.
  • Hall, A.J., McConnell, B.J. & Barker, R.J. (2001) Factors affecting first-year survival in grey seals and their implications for life history strategy. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 138149.
  • Hill, S.E.B. (1987) Reproductive Ecology of Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. PhD Thesis, University of Minnesota, Minnesota.
  • Hindell, M.A., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Harcourt, R.G. & Guinet, C. (2003) Ecosystem monitoring: are seals a potential tool for monitoring change in marine systems? Marine Mammals. Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues (eds N.J.Gales, M.A.Hindell & R.Kirkwood), pp. 330343. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
  • Hindell, M.A., Harcourt, R., Waas, J.R. & Thompson, D. (2002) Fine-scale three-dimensional spatial use by diving, lactating female Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddellii. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 242, 275284.
  • Ihaka, R. & Gentleman, R. (1996) R: a language for data analysis and graphics. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 5, 299314.
  • Kaufman, G., Siniff, D.B. & Reichle, R. (1975) Colony behavior of Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii, at Hutton Cliffs, Antarctica. Rapport et Procés-Verbaux Réunions Du Conseil International Pour L’Exploration de la Mer, 169, 228246.
  • Kooyman, G.L. (1981) Weddell Seal, Consummate Diver. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Le Boeuf, B.J. & Crocker, D.E. (2005) Ocean climate and seal condition. BMC Biology, 3, 9.
  • Lesser, M.P., Lamare, M.D. & Barker, M.F. (2004) Transmission of ultraviolet radiation through the Antarctic annual sea ice and its biological effects on sea urchin embryos. Limnology and Oceanography, 49, 19571963.
  • Lydersen, C., Hammill, M.O. & Ryg, M.S. (1992) Water flux and mass gain during lactation in free-living ringed seal (Phoca hispida) pups. Journal of Zoology (London), 228, 361369.
  • Lynnes, A.S., Reid, K. & Croxall, J.P. (2004) Diet and reproductive success of Adelie and chinstrap penguins: linking response of predators to prey population dynamics. Polar Biology, 27, 544554.
  • McCafferty, D.J., Boyd, I.L., Walker, T.R. & Taylor, R.I. (1998) Foraging responses of Antarctic fur seals to changes in the marine environment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 166, 285299.
  • McMahon, C.R. & Burton, H.R. (2005) Climate change and seal survival: evidence for environmentally mediated changes in elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, pup survival. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biology Sciences, 272, 923928.
  • McMahon, C.R., Burton, H.R. & Bester, M.N. (2000) Weaning mass and the future survival of juvenile southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, at Macquarie Island. Antarctic Science, 12, 149153.
  • Nicol, S., Pauly, T., Bindoff, N.L., Wright, S., Thiele, D., Hosie, G.W., Strutton, P.G. & Woehler, E. (2000) Ocean circulation off east Antarctica affects ecosystem structure and sea-ice extent. Nature, 406, 504507.
  • Ortiz, C.L., Costa, D.P. & Le Boeuf, B.J. (1978) Water and energy flux in elephant seal pups fasting under natural conditions. Physiological Zoology, 51, 166178.
  • Pinaud, D. & Weimerskirch, H. (2002) Ultimate and proximate factors affecting the breeding performance of a marine top-predator. Oikos, 99, 141150.
  • Pinaud, D., Cherel, Y. & Weimerskirch, H. (2005) Effect of environmental variability on habitat selection, diet, provisioning behaviour and chick growth in yellow-nosed albatrosses. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 298, 295304.
  • Planque, B. & Taylor, A.H. (1998) Long-term changes in zooplankton and the climate of the North Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55, 644654.
  • Pomeroy, P.P., Fedak, M.A., Rothery, P. & Anderson, S. (1999) Consequences of maternal size for reproductive expenditure and pupping success of grey seals at North Rona, Scotland. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 235253.
  • Reid, K., Croxall, J.P., Briggs, D.R. & Murphy, E.J. (2005) Antarctic ecosystem monitoring: quantifying the response of ecosystem indicators to variability in Antarctic krill. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62, 366373.
  • Reilly, J.R. & Fedak, M.A. (1990) Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution. Journal of Applied Physiology, 69, 885891.
  • Rogowitz, G.L. (1996) Trade-offs in energy allocation during lactation. American Zoologist, 36, 197204.
  • Sato, K., Mitani, Y., Cameron, M.F., Siniff, D.B., Watanabe, Y. & Naito, Y. (2002) Deep foraging dives in relation to the energy depletion of Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) mothers during lactation. Polar Biology, 25, 696702.
  • Scrimgeour, C.M., Rollo, M.M., Mudambo, M.K.T., Handley, L.L. & Prosser, S.J. (1993) A simplified method for deuterium/hydrogen isotope ratio measurements on water samples of biological origin. Biology Mass Spectrometry, 22, 383387.
  • Seibel, B.A. & Dierssen, H.M. (2003) Cascading trophic impacts of reduced biomass in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Just the tip of the iceberg? Biology Bulletin, 205, 9397.
  • Shuster, S.M. & Wade, M.J. (2003) Mating Systems and Strategies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Siniff, D.B., DeMaster, D.P., Hofman, R.J. & Eberhardt, L.L. (1977) An analysis of the dynamics of a Weddell seal population. Ecological Monographs, 47, 319335.
  • Stearns, S.C. (1992) The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Stirling, I. (1969) Ecology of the Weddell seal in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Ecology, 50, 574585.
  • Tedman, R.A. & Bryden, M.M. (1979) Cow-pup behaviour of the Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii (Pinnipedia), in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Australian Journal of Wildlife Research, 6, 1937.
  • Tedman, R.A. & Green, B. (1987) Water and sodium fluxes and lactational energetics in suckling pups of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). Journal of Zoology (London), 212, 2942.
  • Testa, J.W., Hill, S.E.B. & Siniff, D.B. (1989) Diving behaviour and maternal investment in Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). Marine Mammal Science, 5, 399405.
  • Testa, J.W., Siniff, D.B., Croxall, J.P. & Burton, H.R. (1990) A comparison of reproductive parameters among 3 populations of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). Journal of Animal Ecology, 59, 11651175.
  • Testa, J.W., Oehlert, G., Ainley, D.G., Bengtson, J.L., Siniff, D.B., Laws, R.M. & Rounsevell, D. (1991) Temporal variability in Antarctic marine ecosystems: periodic fluctuations in phocid seals. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48, 631639.
  • Thomas, J.A. & DeMaster, D.P. (1983) Parameters affecting survival of Weddell seal pups (Leptonychotes weddellii) to weaning. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 61, 20782083.
  • Thompson, P.M. & Ollason, J.C. (2001) Lagged effects of ocean climate change on fulmar population dynamics. Nature, 413, 417420.
  • Trillmich, F. (1996) Parental investment in pinnipeds. Advances in the Study of Behaviour, 25, 533577.