SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alexander, R.M. (1988) Elastic Mechanisms in Animal Movement. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Alexander, R.M. (2003) Principles of Animal Locomotion. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Beamish, F.W.H. (1990) Swimming metabolism and temperature in juvenile walleye, Stizostedion-vitreum-vitreum. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 27, 309314.
  • Bennett, M.B. & Taylor, G.C. (1995) Scaling of elastic strain-energy in kangaroos and the benefits of being big. Nature, 378, 5659.
  • Brown, J.H., Gillooly, J.F., Allen, A.P., Savage, V.M. & West, G.B. (2004) Toward a metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology, 85, 17711789.
  • Burnham, K.P. & Anderson, D.R. (2001) Kullback–Leibler information as a basis for strong inference in ecological studies. Wildlife Research, 28, 111119.
  • Butler, P.J. & Bishop, C.M. (2000) Flight. Sturkie's Avian Physiology, 5th edn (ed. G.C.Whittow), pp. 391435. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • Butler, P.J., Green, J.A., Boyd, I.L. & Speakman, J.R. (2004) Measuring metabolic rate in the field: the pros and cons of the doubly labelled water and heart rate methods. Functional Ecology, 18, 168183.
  • Butler, P.J., Woakes, A.J. & Bishop, C.M. (1998) Behaviour and physiology of Svalbard barnacle geese Branta leucopsis during their autumn migration. Journal of Avian Biology, 29, 536545.
  • Campbell, K.L., Crocker, P.R.E. & McKenzie, D.C. (2002) Field evaluation of energy expenditure in women using Tritrac accelerometers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 16671674.
  • Chappell, R. (1989) Fitting bent lines to data, with applications to allometry. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 138, 235256.
  • Chaui-Berlinck, J.G. & Bicudo, J.E.P.W. (1995) Unusual metabolic shifts in fasting hummingbirds. Auk, 112, 774494.
  • Clark, T.D., Butler, P.J. & Frappell, P.B. (2006) Factors influencing the prediction of metabolic rate in a reptile. Functional Ecology, 20, 105113.
  • Darveau, C.A., Suarez, R.K., Andrews, R.D. & Hochachka, P.W. (2002) Allometric cascade as a unifying principle of body mass effects on metabolism. Nature, 417, 166170.
  • Dutto, D.J., Hoyt, D.F., Cogger, E.A. & Wickler, S.J. (2004) Ground reaction forces in horses trotting up an incline and on the level over a range of speeds. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207, 35073514.
  • Enstipp, M.R., Gremillet, D. & Jones, D.R. (2006) The effects of depth, temperature and food ingestion on the foraging energetics of a diving endotherm, the double-crested cormorant Phalacorax auritus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 845859.
  • Fedak, M.A., Rome, L. & Seeherman, H.J. (1981) One-step N2-dilution technique for calibrating open-circuit inline image measuring systems. Journal of Applied Physiology, 51, 772776.
  • Frappell, P.B. & Butler, P.J. (2004) Minimal metabolic rate, what it is, its usefulness, and its relationship to the evolution of endothermy: a brief synopsis. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 77, 865868.
  • Froget, G., Butler, P.J., Woakes, A.J., Fahlman, A., Kuntz, G., Le Maho, Y. & Handrich, Y. (2004) Heart rate and energetics of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 207, 39173926.
  • Fruin, M.L. & Rankin, J.W. (2004) Validity of a multi-sensor armband in estimating rest and exercise energy expenditure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 10631069.
  • Geiser, F. (2004) Metabolic rate and body temperature reduction during hibernation and daily torpor. Annual Review of Physiology, 66, 239274.
  • Gessaman, J.A. & Nagy, K.A. (1988) Transmitter loads affect the flight speed and metabolism of homing pigeons. Condor, 90, 662668.
  • Gottschall, J.S. & Kram, R. (2005) Ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running. Journal of Biomechanics, 38, 445452.
  • Green, J.A., Butler, D.J., Woakes, A.J., Boyd, I.L. & Holder, R.L. (2001) Heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption of expercising macaroni penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology, 204, 673684.
  • Green, J.A., Butler, R.J., Woakes, A.J. & Boyd, I.L. (2003) Energetics of diving in macaroni penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, 4357.
  • Green, J.A., Woakes, A.J., Boyd, I.L. & Butler, P.J. (2005) Cardiovascular adjustments during locomotion in penguins. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 83, 445454.
  • Grémillet, D., Chauvin, C., Wilson, R.P., Le Maho, Y. & Wanless, S. (2005) Unusual feather structure allows partial plumage wettability in diving great cormorants. Journal of Avian Biology, 36, 5763.
  • Halsey, L.G., Butler, P.J. & Woakes, A.J. (2005) Breathing hypoxic gas affects the physiology as well as the diving behaviour of tufted ducks. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 78, 273284.
  • Hambly, C., Harper, E.J. & Speakman, J.R. (2004) The energy cost of loaded flight is substantially lower than expected due to alterations in flight kinematics. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207, 39693976.
  • Hawkins, P.A.J., Butler, P.J., Woakes, A.J. & Gabrielsen, G.W. (1997) Heat increment of feeding in Brunnich's guillemot Uria lomvia. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200, 17571763.
  • Hawkins, P.A.J., Butler, P.J., Woakes, A.J. & Speakman, J.R. (2000) Estimation of the rate of oxygen consumption of the common eider duck (Somateria mollissima), with some measurements of heart rate during voluntary dives. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 28192832.
  • Hoos, M.B., Plasqui, G., Gerver, W.J.M. & Westerterp, K.R. (2003) Physical activity level measured by doubly labeled water and accelerometry in children. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 89, 624626.
  • Irschick, D.J., Vanhooydonck, B., Hertel, A. & Andronescu, A. (2003) Effects of loading and size on maximum power output and gait characteristics in geckos. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, 39233934.
  • Kato, A., Ropert-Coudert, Y., Gremillet, D. & Cannell, B. (2006) Locomotion and foraging strategy in foot-propelled and wing-propelled shallow-diving seabirds. Marine Ecology − Progress Series, 308, 293301.
  • King, A.M., Loiselle, D.S. & Kohl, P. (2004) Force generation for locomotion of vertebrates: skeletal muscle overview. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 29, 684691.
  • Kumahara, H., Schutz, Y., Ayabe, M., Yoshioka, M., Yoshitake, Y., Shindo, M., Ishii, K. & Tanaka, H. (2004) The use of uniaxial accelerometry for the assessment of physical-activity-related energy expenditure: a validation study against whole-body indirect calorimetry. British Journal of Nutrition, 91, 235243.
  • Lindstrom, A. & Alerstam, T. (1992) Optimal fat loads in migrating birds − a test of the time-minimization hypothesis. American Naturalist, 140, 477491.
  • Lovvorn, J.R., Croll, D.A. & Liggins, G.A. (1999) Mechanical versus physiological determinants of swimming speeds in diving Brunnich's guillemots. Journal of Experimental Biology, 202, 17411752.
  • Lovvorn, J.R. & Jones, D.R. (1991) Effects of body size, body-fat, and change in pressure with depth on buoyancy and costs of diving in ducks (Aythya spp). Canadian Journal of Zoology–Revue Canadienne de Zoologie, 69, 28792887.
  • Lovvorn, J.R., Jones, D.R. & Blake, R.W. (1991) Mechanics of underwater locomotion in diving ducks − drag, buoyancy and acceleration in a size gradient of species. Journal of Experimental Biology, 159, 89108.
  • McKechnie, A.E., Freckleton, R.P. & Jetz, W. (2006) Phenotypic plasticity in the scaling of avian basal metabolic rate. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 273, 931937.
  • McKechnie, A.E. & Wolf, B.O. (2004) The allometry of avian basal metabolic rate: good predictions need good data. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 77, 502521.
  • McNab, B.K. (2002) Physiological Ecology of Vertebrates. Comstock Cornell, Ithaca, NY.
  • McNamara, J.M. & Houston, A.I. (1996) State-dependent life histories. Nature, 380, 215221.
  • Nickerson, D.M., Facey, D.E. & Grossman, G.D. (1989) Estimating physiological thresholds with continuous 2-phase regression. Physiological Zoology, 62, 866887.
  • Nolet, B.A., Butler, P.J., Masman, D. & Woakes, A.J. (1992) Estimation of daily energy-expenditure from heart-rate and doubly labeled water in exercising geese. Physiological Zoology, 65, 11881216.
  • Pfau, T., Witte, T.H. & Wilson, A.M. (2005) A method for deriving displacement data during cyclical movement using an inertial sensor. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 25032514.
  • Ribak, G., Weihs, D. & Arad, Z. (2005) Water retention in the plumage of diving great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Journal of Avian Biology, 36, 8995.
  • Ropert-Coudert, Y., Bost, C.-A., Handrich, Y., Bevan, R.M., Butler, P.J., Woakes, A.J. & Le Maho, Y. (2000) Impact of externally attached loggers on the diving behaviour of the king penguin. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 73, 438445.
  • Ropert-Coudert, Y., Gremillet, D., Kato, A., Ryan, P.G., Naito, Y. & Le Maho, Y. (2004) A fine-scale time budget of Cape gannets provides insights into the foraging strategies of coastal seabirds. Animal Behaviour, 67, 985992.
  • Ropert-Coudert, Y. & Wilson, R.P. (2005) Trends and perspectives in animal-attached remote sensing. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3, 437444.
  • Rosen, D.A.S. & Trites, A.W. (1997) Heat increment of feeding in Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, Physiology, 118, 877881.
  • Rubenson, J., Heliams, D.B., Lloyd, D.G. & Fournier, P.A. (2004) Gait selection in the ostrich: mechanical and metabolic characteristics of walking and running with and without an aerial phase. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 271, 10911099.
  • Sato, K., Mitani, Y., Cameron, M.F., Siniff, D.B. & Naito, Y. (2003) Factors affecting stroking patterns and body angle in diving Weddell seals under natural conditions. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, 14611470.
  • Tremblay, Y., Cook, T.R. & Cherel, Y. (2005) Time budget and diving behaviour of chick-rearing Crozet shags. Canadian Journal of Zoology–Revue Canadienne de Zoologie, 83, 971982.
  • Videler, J.J., Vossebelt, G., Gnodde, M. & Groenewegen, A. (1988) Indoor flight experiments with trained kestrels. 1. Flight strategies in still air with and without added weight. Journal of Experimental Biology, 134, 173183.
  • Walsberg, G.E. & Hoffman, T.C.M. (2005) Direct calorimetry reveals large errors in respirometric estimates of energy expenditure. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 10351043.
  • Ward, S., Bishop, C.M., Woakes, A.J. & Butler, P.J. (2002) Heart rate and the rate of oxygen consumption of flying and walking barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and bar-headed geese (Anser indicus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, 33473356.
  • Watanabe, S., Izawa, M., Kato, A., Ropert-Coudert, Y. & Naito, Y. (2005) A new technique for monitoring the detailed behaviour of terrestrial animals: a case study with the domestic cat. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 94, 117131.
  • Watanuki, Y., Niizuma, Y., Gabrielsen, G.W., Sato, K. & Naito, Y. (2003) Stroke and glide of wing-propelled divers: deep diving seabirds adjust surge frequency to buoyancy change with depth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 270, 483488.
  • Watanuki, Y., Takahashi, A., Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Harris, M., Sato, K. & Naito, Y. (2005) Regulation of stroke and glide in a foot-propelled avian diver. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 22072216.
  • Weibel, E.R., Bacigalupe, L.D., Schmitt, B. & Hoppeler, H. (2004) Allometric scaling of maximal metabolic rate in mammals: muscle aerobic capacity as determinant factor. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 140, 115132.
  • White, C.R. & Seymour, R.S. (2005) Allometric scaling of mammalian metabolism. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 16111619.
  • Williams, T.M., Davis, R.W., Fuiman, L.A., Francis, J., Le Boeuf, B.L., Horning, M., Calambokidis, J. & Croll, D.A. (2000) Sink or swim: strategies for cost-efficient diving by marine mammals. Science, 288, 133136.
  • Williams, T.M., Fuiman, L.A., Horning, M. & Davis, R.W. (2004) The cost of foraging by a marine predator, the Weddell seal Leptonychotes weddellii: pricing by the stroke. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207, 973982.
  • Wilson, R.P., Hustler, K., Ryan, P.G., Burger, A.E. & Noldeke, E.C. (1992) Diving birds in cold water − do Archimedes and Boyle determine energetic costs. American Naturalist, 140, 179200.
  • Wilson, R.P. & Liebsch, N. (2003) Up-beat motion in swinging limbs: new insights into assessing movement in free-living aquatic vertebrates. Marine Biology, 142, 537547.
  • Wilson, R.P., Putz, K., Peters, G., Culik, B., Scolaro, J.A., Charrassin, J.B. & Ropert-Coudert, Y. (1997) Long-term attachment of transmitting and recording devices to penguins and other seabirds. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 25, 101106.
  • Withers, P.C. (2001) Design, calibration and calculation for flow-through respirometry systems. Australian Journal of Zoology, 49, 445461.
  • Woakes, A.J. & Butler, P.J. (1983) Swimming and diving in tufted ducks, Aythya-fuligula, with particular reference to heart-rate and gas-exchange. Journal of Experimental Biology, 107, 311329.
  • Yeager, D.P. & Ultsch, G.R. (1989) Physiological regulation and conformation − a basic program for the determination of critical-points. Physiological Zoology, 62, 888907.
  • Yoda, K., Naito, Y., Sato, K., Takahashi, A., Nishikawa, J., Ropert-Coudert, Y., Kurita, M. & Le Maho, Y. (2001) A new technique for monitoring the behaviour of free-ranging Adelie penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology, 204, 685690.