SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ackman, R.G. (1980) Fish lipids, Part 1. Advances in Fish Science and Technology (ed. J.J.Connell), pp. 86103. Fishing News Books, Surrey, UK.
  • Austin, D.A., Bowen, W.D. and McMillan, J.I. (2004) Intraspecific variation in movement patterns: modeling individual behaviour in a large marine predator. Oikos, 105, 1530.
  • Beck, C.A. (2002) Sex difference in the foraging ecology of a size-dimorphic marine carnivore. PhD Thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • Beck, C.A., Bowen, W.D., McMillan, J.I. and Iverson, S.J. (2003a) Sex differences in diving at multiple temporal scales in a size-dimorphic capital breeder. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 979993.
  • Beck, C.A., Bowen, W.D., McMillan, J.I. and Iverson, S.J. (2003b) Sex differences in the diving behaviour of a size dimorphic capital breeder: the grey seal. Animal Behaviour, 66, 777789.
  • Beck, C.A., Bowen, W.D. and Iverson, S.J. (2003c) Sex differences in the seasonal patterns of energy storage and expenditure in a phocid seal. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 280291.
  • Borobia, M., Gearing, P.J., Simard, Y., Gearing, J.N. and Béland, P. (1995) Blubber fatty acids of finback and humpback whales from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Marine Biology, 122, 341353.
  • Bowen, W.D. (2000) Reconstruction of pinniped diets: accounting for complete digestion of otoliths and cephalopod beaks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, 898905.
  • Bowen, W.D. and Harrison, G.D. (1994) Offshore diet of grey seals Halichoerus grypus near Sable Island, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 112, 111.
  • Bowen, W.D., Oftedal, O.T. and Boness, D.J. (1992) Mass and energy transfer during lactation in a small phocid, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Physiological Zoology, 65, 844866.
  • Bowen, W.D., Lawson, J.W. and Beck, B. (1993) Seasonal and geographical variation in the species composition and size of prey consumed by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on the Scotian Shelf. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 50, 17681778.
  • Bowen, W.D., McMillan, J.I. and Mohn, R. (2003) Sustained exponential population growth of grey seals at Sable Island, Nova Scotia. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60, 12651274.
  • Bowen, W.D., Beck, C.A., Iverson, S.J., Austin, D.A. and McMillan, J.I. (2006) Linking predator foraging behaviour and diet with variability in continental shelf ecosystems: grey seals of eastern Canada. Top Predators in Marine Ecosystems (eds I.L.Boyd, S.W.Wanless and C.J.Camphuysen), pp. 6381. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Boyd, I.L. (1984) The relationship between body condition and the timing of implantation in pregnant Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Journal of Zoology (London), 203, 113123.
  • Breed, G., Bowen, W.D., McMillan, J.I. and Leonard, M. (2006) Sexual segregation of seasonal foraging habitats in a non-migratory marine mammal. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 273, 23192326.
  • Budge, S.M., Iverson, S.J., Bowen, W.D. and Ackman, R.G. (2002) Among- and within-species variability in fatty acid signatures of marine fish and invertebrates on the Scotian Shelf, Georges Bank, and southern Gulf of St Lawrence. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 59, 886898.
  • Budge, S.M., Cooper, M.H. and Iverson, S.J. (2004) Demonstration of the deposition and modification of dietary fatty acids in pinniped blubber using radio labeled precursors. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 77, 682687.
  • Bundy, A., Lilly, G.P. and Shelton, P.A. (2000) A Mass Balance Model of the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf. Canadian Technical Report on Fisheries and Aquatic Science no. 2310. Supply and Service Canada Ottawa, Ontario.
  • Cannalejo, F.J.P., Alvarez, F.J.V., Arroyo, A.F., Sanchez, J.M.C. and De Cardenas, E. (1989) The feeding of American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessodies), redfish (Sebastes marinus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Flemish Cap during July 1988. NAFO SCR Doc. 89/45. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Council, Dartmouth, Nova Scotía.
  • Clarke, J., Manly, B., Kerry, K., Gardner, H., Franchi, E., Corsolini, S. and Focardi, S. (1998) Sex differences in Adelie penguin foraging strategies. Polar Biology, 20, 248258.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H. and Parker, G.A. (1992) Potential reproductive rates and the operation of sexual selection. Quarterly Review in Biology, 67, 437456.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H., Guinness, F.E. and Albon, S.D. (1982) Red Deer: Behaviour and Ecology of Two Sexes. Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Clutton-Brock, T.H., Iason, G.R. and Guiness, F.E. (1987) Sexual segregation and density related changes in the habitat use in male and female red deer. Journal of Zoology (London), 211, 275289.
  • Cook, H.W. (1991) Fatty acid desaturation and chain elongation in eukaryotes. Biochemistry of Lipids and Membranes (eds D.E.Vance and J.E.Vance), pp. 141169. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
  • Cooper, M.H. (2004) Fatty acid metabolism in marine carnivores: implications for quantitative estimation of predator diets. PhD Thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • Efron, B. and Tibshirani, R.J. (1998) An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton.
  • Estes, J.A., Tinker, M.T., Williams, T.M. and Doak, D.F. (1998) Killer whale predation on sea otters linking coastal with oceanic ecosystems. Science, 282, 473476.
  • Field, I.C., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Burton, H.R., Summer, M.D. and Hindell, M.A. (2005) Resource partitioning through oceanic segregation of foraging juvenile southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). Oecologia, 142, 127135.
  • Forero, M.G., Hobson, K.A., Bortolotti, G.R., Donazar, J.A., Bertellotti, M. and Blanco, G. (2002) Food resource utilization evaluated through stable-isotope analysis: segregation by sex and age and influence on offspring quality. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 234, 289299.
  • Ginnett, T.F. and Demment, M.W. (1997) Sex differences in giraffe foraging behavior at two spatial scales. Oecologia, 110, 291300.
  • Hall, A.J., McConnell, B.J. and Barker, R.J. (2001) Factors affecting first-year survival in grey seals and their implication for life history strategy. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 138149.
  • Harvey, J.T. (1989) Assessment of errors associated with harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) fecal sampling. Journal of Zoology (London), 219, 101111.
  • Hewison, A.J.M., Angibault, J.M., Boutin, J., Bideau, E., Vincent, J.P. and Sempere, A. (1996) Annual variation in body composition of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in moderate environmental conditions. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74, 245253.
  • Iverson, S.J., Frost, K.J. and Lowry, L.F. (1997) Fatty acid signatures reveal fine scale structure of foraging distribution of harbor seals and their prey in Prince William Sound. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 151, 255271.
  • Iverson, S.J., McDonald, J.E. and Smith, L.H. (2001a) Changes in diet of free-ranging black bears in years of contrasting food availability revealed through milk fatty acids. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79, 22682279.
  • Iverson, S.J., Lang, S.L.C. and Cooper, M. (2001b) Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for total lipid determination in a broad range of marine tissue. Lipids, 36, 12831287.
  • Iverson, S.J., Frost, K.J. and Lang, S.L.C. (2002) Fat content and fatty acid composition of forage fish and invertebrates in Prince William Sound, Alaska: factors contribution to among and within species variability. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 241, 161181.
  • Iverson, S.J., Field, C., Bowen, W.D. and Blanchard, W. (2004) Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis: a new method of estimating predator diets. Ecological Monographs, 74, 211235.
  • Jobling, M. and Breiby, A. (1986) The use and abuse of fish otoliths in studies of feeding habits of marine piscivores. Sarsia, 71, 265274.
  • Jormalainen, V., Honkanen, T., Makinen, A., Hemmi, A. and Vesakoski, O. (2001) Why does herbivore sex matter? Sexual differences in utilization of Fucus vesiculosus by the isopod Idotea baltica. Oikos, 93, 7786.
  • Kilham, L. (1965) Differences in feeding behaviour of male and female hairy woodpeckers. Wilson Bulletin, 77, 134145.
  • Kirsch, P.E., Iverson, S.J. and Bowen, W.D. (2000) Effect of diet on body composition and blubber fatty acids in captive harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 73, 4559.
  • Krebs, C.J. (1989) Ecological Methodology. Harper Collins, New York.
  • Langton, R.S. (1982) Diet overlap between Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis, and fifteen other Atlantic finfish. US Fisheries Bulletin, 80, 745759.
  • Le Boeuf, B.J., Crocker, D.E., Costa, D.P., Blackwell, S.B., Webb, P.M. and Houser, D.S. (2000) Foraging ecology of northern elephant seals. Ecological Monographs, 70, 353382.
  • Lhuillery, C., Mebarki, S., Lecourtier, M.J. and Demarne, Y. (1988) Influence of different dietary fats on the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into rat adipose glycerides. Journal of Nutrition, 118, 14471454.
  • Lidgard, D.C., Boness, D.J., Bowen, W.D. and McMillian, J.I. (2005) State-dependent male mating tactics in the grey seal: the importance of body size. Behavioural Ecology, 16, 541549.
  • Ligon, J.D. (1968) Sexual differences in foraging behavior in two species of Dendrocopos woodpeckers. Auk, 85, 203215.
  • Logan, M.S., Iverson, S.J., Ruzzante, D.E., Walde, S.J., Alonso, M.F. and Cussac, V.E. (2000) Long term diet differences between morphs in trophically polymorphic Percichthys trucha (Pisces: Percichthyidae) populations from the southern Andes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 69, 599616.
  • Martell, D.J. and McClelland, G. (1994) Diets of sympatric flatfishes, Hippoglossoides platessoides, Pleuronectes ferrugineus, Pleuronectes americanus, from Sable Island Bank, Canada. Journal of Fish Biology, 44, 821848.
  • Mellish, J.A., Iverson, S.J. and Bowen, W.D. (1999) Individual variation in maternal energy allocation and milk production in grey seals and consequences for pup growth and weaning characteristics. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 72, 677690.
  • Mellish, J.E., Iverson, S.J. and Bowen, W.D. (2000) Metabolic compensation during high energy output in fasting lactating grey seals (Halichoerus grypus): metabolic ceilings revisited. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, 267, 12451251.
  • Mitchell, B., McCowen, D. and Nicholson, I.A. (1976) Annual cycles of body weight and condition in Scottish Red deer, Cervus elaphus. Journal of Zoology (London), 180, 107127.
  • Mohn, R. and Bowen, W.D. (1996) Grey seal predation on the eastern Scotian Shelf: modeling the impact on Atlantic cod. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 53, 27222738.
  • Mysterud, A. (2000) The relationship between ecological segregation and sexual size dimorphism in large herbivores. Oecologia, 125, 4054.
  • Nagy, K.A. (1987) Field metabolic rate and food requirement scaling in mammals and birds. Ecological Monographs, 57, 111128.
  • Newton-Fisher, N.E. (1999) The diet of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 37, 344354.
  • Parmelee, J.R. and Guyer, C. (1995) Sexual differences in foraging behavior of an Anoline Lizard, Norops humilis. Journal of Herpetology, 29, 619621.
  • Perez-Barberia, F.J. and Gordon, I.J. (1999) Body size dimorphism and sexual segregation in polygynous ungulates: an experimental test with Soay sheep. Oecologia, 120, 258267.
  • Pitcher, K.W., Calkins, D.G. and Pendleton, G.W. (1998) Reproductive performance of female Stellar sea lions: an energetic-based reproductive strategy? Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76, 20752083.
  • Polis, G.A. (1984) Age structure component of niche width and intraspecific resource partitioning: can age groups function as ecological species? American Naturalist, 123, 541564.
  • Pond, C.M., Mattacks, C.A., Gilmore, I., Johnson, M.A. and Pillinger, C.T. (1995) Chemical and carbon isotopic composition of fatty acids in adipose tissue as indicators of dietary history in wild foxes (Alopex lagopus) on Svalbard. Journal of Zoology (London), 236, 611623.
  • Raclot, T., Groscolas, R. and Cherel, Y. (1998) Fatty acids evidence for the importance of myctophid fishes in the diet of king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus. Marine Biology, 132, 523533.
  • Rouvinen, K. and Kiiskinen, T. (1989) Influence of dietary fat source on the body fat composition of mink (Mustela vison) and blue fox (Alopex lagopus). Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 39, 279288.
  • Schoener, T.W. (1970) Nonsynchronous spatial overlap of lizards in patchy habitats. Ecology, 51, 408418.
  • Simpfendorfer, C.A., Goodreid, A.B. and McAuley, R.B. (2001) Size, sex and geographic variation in the diet of tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, from Western Australian waters. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 61, 3746.
  • Slip, D.J., Hindell, M.A. and Burton, H.R. (1994) Diving behavior of southern elephant seals from Macquarie Island: an overview. Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology (eds B.J.Le Boeuf and R.M.Laws), pp. 253270. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Smith, R.D. and Metcalfe, N.B. (1997) Where and when to feed: sex and experience affect access to food in wintering snow buntings. Behaviour, 134, 143160.
  • Summers, L.K.M., Barnes, S.C., Fielding, B.A., Beysen, C., Ilic, V., Humphreys, S.M. and Frayn, K.N. (2000) Uptake of individual fatty acids into adipose tissue in relation to their presence in the diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 14701477.
  • Virgl, J.A. and Messier, F. (1992) Seasonal variation in body composition and morphology of adult muskrats in central Saskatchewan, Canada. Journal of Zoology (London), 228, 461477.
  • Walton, M. and Pomeroy, P. (2003) Use of blubber fatty acid profiles to detect inter-annual variation in the diet of grey seals Halichoreus grypus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 248, 257266.
  • Weimerskirch, H., Cherel, Y., Cuenot-Chaillet, F. and Ridoux, V. (1997) Alternative foraging strategies and resource allocation by male and female wandering albatrosses. Ecology, 78, 20512063.
  • White, R.G., Rowell, J.E. and Hauer, W.E. (1997) The role of nutrition, body condition and lactation on calving success in muskoxen. Journal of Zoology (London), 243, 1320.
  • Yodzis, P. (1998) Local trophodynamics and the interaction of marine mammals and fisheries in the Benquela ecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology, 67, 635658.
  • York, M.M., Rosenberg, D.K. and Sturm, K.K. (2002) Diet and food-niche breadth of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the imperial valley, California. Western North American Naturalist, 62, 280287.