SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • A.O.U. (American Ornithologists Union) (1998) Checklist of North American Birds, 7th edn. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, DC. Available from URL: http://www.aou.org/checklist/index.php3 .
  • Badyaev, A.V. & Ghalambor, C.K. (2001) Evolution of life histories along elevational gradients: trade-off between parental care and fecundity. Ecology, 82, 29482960.
  • Badyaev, A.V. (1997) Avian life history variation along altitudinal gradients: an example with cardueline finches. Oecologia, 111, 365374.
  • Baily, R.E. (1952) The incubation patch of passerine birds. Condor, 54, 121136.
  • Ball, G.F. (1993) The neural integration of environmental information by seasonally breeding birds. American Zoologist, 33, 185199.
  • Bears, H. (2002) How and why a small songbird breeds over a steep elevation gradient. Msc Thesis. University of British Columbia, Canada.
  • Bears, H. (2004) Parasite prevalence in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) breeding at different elevations. Canadian Field Naturalist, 118, 235238.
  • Bears, H. (2007) Elevation and the avian phenotype: field and experimental studies of breeding dark-eyed juncos. Phd Dissertation. University of British Columbia, Canada.
  • Bears, H., Smith, J.N.M. & Wingfield, J.C. (2003) Adrenocortical sensitivity to stress in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis oregonus) breeding in low and high elevation habitat. Ecoscience, 10, 127133.
  • Bears, H., Drever, M.C. & Martin, K. (2008) Comparative morphology of dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis breeding at two elevations: a common aviary experiment. Journal of Avian Biology, 39, 152162.
  • Burnham, K.P. & Anderson, D.R. (2002) Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R., White, G.C., Brownie, C. & Pollock, P.H. (1987) Design and Analysis Methods for Fish Survival Experiments Based on Release-Recapture. American Fisheries Society Monograph No. 5. Bethesda, Maryland.
  • Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences. McGraw-Hill, Hillside, New Jersey.
  • Cooch, E. & White, G. (2006) Program mark; A Gentle Introduction, 5th edn. Available from URL: http://www.phidot.org/software/mark/docs/book/.
  • Cormack, R.M. (1964) Estimates of survival from the sighting of marked animals. Biometrika, 51, 429438.
  • Coulter, M.C. & Bryan, A.L. (1995) Factors affecting reproductive success of wood storks (Mycteria americana) in east-central Georgia. Auk, 112, 237243.
  • Cristol, D.A., Nolan, V.(Jr) & Ketterson, E.D. (1990) Effect of prior residence on dominance status of dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis. Animal Behaviour, 40, 580586.
  • Dawson, A., Hinsley, S.A., Ferns, P.N., Bonser, R.H.C. & Eccleston, L. (2000) Rate of moult affects feather quality: a mechanism linking current reproductive effort to future survival. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 267, 20932098.
  • Deviche, P., Wingfield, J.C. & Sharp, P.J. (2000) Year-class differences in the reproductive system, plasma prolactin and corticosterone concentrations and onset of pre-basic molt in male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) during the breeding period. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 118, 425435.
  • Dunmire, W.W. (1960) An altitudinal survey of reproduction in Peromyscus maniculatus. Ecology, 41, 174182.
  • Fargallo, J.A (2004) Latitudinal trends of reproductive traits in the blue tit Parus caeruleus. Ardeola, 51, 177190.
  • Farner, D.S. & Lewis, R.A. (1971) Photoperiodism and reproductive cycles in birds. Photophysiology, 6, 325370.
  • Farner, D.S., Donhan, R.S., Matt, K.S., Mattocks, P.W., Moore, M.C. & Wingfield, J.C. (1983) Avian endocrinology: environmental and ecological perspectives. The Nature of Photorefractoriness (eds S.Mikami, K.Homma & M.Wada), pp. 149166. Japanese Scientific Society Press, Tokyo.
  • Ghalambor, C.K., Huey, R.B., Martin, P.R., Tewksbury, J.J. & Wang, G. (2006) Are mountain passes higher in the tropics? Janzen's hypothesis revisited. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 46, 517.
  • Ginn, H.B. & Melville, D.S. (1983, reprint in 2000) Moult in Birds: British Trust for Ornithology. Tring, UK.
  • Grasso, M.J., Savalli, U.M. & Mumme, R. (1996) Status signalling in dark-eyed juncos: perceived status of other birds affects dominance interactions. Condor, 98, 636639.
  • Gwinner, E. (1986) Circannual Rhythms. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
  • Hahn, T.P. (1998) Reproductive seasonality in an opportunistic breeder, the red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra. Ecology, 79, 23652375.
  • Hamann, H.J., Schmidt, K.H. & Simonis, S. (1989) Elevation and size of eggs and clutch in the great tit Parus major. Journal Für Ornithology, 130, 6974.
  • Hamner, W.H. (1966) Circadian control of photoperiodism in the house finch demonstrated by interrupted-night experiments. Nature, 203, 14001401.
  • Hegelbach, J. (2001) Water temperature and phytophenology indicate the earlier onset of oviposition in Eurasian Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) from the Swiss Lowlands. Journal für Ornithologie, 142, 284294.
  • Hendricks, P. (2003) Spring snow conditions, laying date, and clutch size in an alpine population of American pipits. Journal of Field Ornithology, 74, 423429.
  • Jolly, G.M. (1965) Explicit estimates from capture-recapture data with both death and immigration-stochastic model. Biometrika, 52, 225247.
  • Kempenaers, B., Congdon, B., Boag, P. & Robertson, R.J. (1999) Extrapair paternity and egg hatchability in tree swallows: evidence for the genetic compatibility hypothesis? Behavioral Ecology, 10, 304311.
  • King, A.S. (1981) Cloaca. Form and Function in Birds, Vol. 2 (eds A.S. King & J. Mclelland), pp. 107148. Academic Press, New York.
  • Köllinsky, C & Landmann, A (1996) Altitudinal distribution of male black redstarts: are there age-dependent patterns? Bird Study, 43, 103107.
  • Körner, C. (1999) Alpine Plant Life: Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany.
  • Krementz, D.G. & Handford, P. (1984) Does avian clutch size increase with altitude? Oikos, 43, 256259.
  • Leary, J., Sullivan, K.A. & Hillgarth, N. (1999) Relationships among dominance, foraging proficiency, and condition in juvenile dark-eyed juncos. Auk, 116, 11361141.
  • Lindström, A., Visser, G.H. & Daan, S. (1993) The energetic cost of feather synthesis is proportional to basal metabolic rate. Physiological Zoology, 66, 490510.
  • Lombardo, M.P. (2001) Individual and seasonal variation in external genitalia of male tree swallows. Auk, 118, 789795.
  • Martin, K. (2001) Wildlife communities in alpine and subalpine habitats. Wildlife-Habitat Relationships in Oregon and Washington (eds D.H.Johnson & T.A.O’Neil), pp. 239260. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon.
  • Martin, K. & Wiebe, K.L. (2004) Coping mechanisms of alpine and arctic breeding birds: extreme weather and limitations to reproductive resilience. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 44, 177185.
  • Monaghan, P., Nager, R.G. & Houston, D.C. (1998) The price of eggs: increased investment in egg production reduces the offspring rearing capacity of parents. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 265, 17311735.
  • Morton, M.L., Pereyra, M.E., Crandall, J.D., MacDougall-Shackleton, E.A. & Hahn, T.P. (2004) Reproductive effort and return rates in the mountain white-crowned sparrow. Condor, 106, 131138.
  • Naef-Daenzer, L., Nager, R.G., Keller, L.F. & Naef-Daenzer, B. (2004) Are hatching delays a cost or a benefit for great tit Parus major parents? Ardea, 92, 229237.
  • Nicholls, T.J., Goldsmith, A.R. & Dawson, A. (1988) Photo-refractoriness in birds and comparison with mammals. Physiological Reviews, 68, 133176.
  • Nolan, V. Jr, Ketterson, E.D., Cristol, D.A., Rogers, C.M., Clotfelter, R.C., Titus, R.C., Schoech, S.J. & Snajdr, E. (2002) The Birds of North America, No. 716. Dark-eyed Junco (Junco Hyemalis) (eds A.Poole & A.F.Gills). Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and American Ornithologists Union, Washington, DC.
  • Oddie, K. (2000) Size matters: competition between male and female great tit offspring. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 903912.
  • Parejo, D. & Danchin, E. (2006) Brood size manipulation affects frequency of second clutches in the blue tit. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 60, 184194.
  • Pearson, S.F. & Rohwer, S. (1998) The influence of breeding phenology and clutch size on hybridization between Hermit and Townsend's warblers. Auk, 115, 739745.
  • Perfito, N., Tramontin, A.D., Meddle, S., Sharp, P., Afik, D., Gee, J., Ishii, S., Kikuchi, M. & Wingfield, J.C. (2004) Reproductive development according to elevation in a seasonally breeding male songbird. Oecologia, 140, 201210.
  • Perrins, C.M. (1970) The timing of birds’ breeding seasons. Ibis, 112, 242255.
  • Purcell, K.L. (2006) Abundance and productivity of warbling vireos across an elevational gradient in the Sierra Nevada. Condor, 108, 315325.
  • Pyle, P. (1997) Identification Guide to North American Birds – Part 1. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, California.
  • Reznick, D. (1985) Costs of reproduction: an evaluation of the empirical evidence. Oikos, 44, 257267.
  • Rohwer, S. (2004) Using age ratios to infer survival and despotic breeding dispersal in hybridizing warblers. Ecology, 85, 423431.
  • Sandercock, B.K., Martin, K. & Hannon, S.J. (2005a) Life history strategies in extreme environments: comparative demography of arctic and alpine ptarmigan. Ecology, 86, 21762186.
  • Sandercock, B.K., Martin, K. & Hannon, S.J. (2005b) Demographic consequences of age-structure in extreme environments: population models for arctic and alpine ptarmigan. Oecologia, 146, 1324.
  • Schieltz, P.C. & Murphy, M.E. (1995) Diurnal variation in oxygen consumption by molting and nonmolting sparrows. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, 112, 265272.
  • Seber, G.A.F. (1965) A note on multiple-recapture census. Biometrika, 52, 249259.
  • Silverin, B., Massa, R. & Stokkan, K.A. (1993) Photoperiodic adaptation to breeding at different latitudes in Great tits. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 90, 1422.
  • Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J.. (1995) Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman and Co, New York.
  • Stabler, R.M., Kitzmiller, N.J. & Braun, C.E. (1974) Hematozoa from Colorado birds. VI. Galliformes. The Journal of Parasitology, 60, 536537.
  • Stevenson, W.E.R. & Bryant, D.M. (2000) Avian phenology-climate change and constraints on breeding. Nature, 406, 366367.
  • Stjernman, M., Raberg, L. & Nilsson, J.A. (2004) Survival costs of reproduction in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus): a role for blood parasites? Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271, 23872394.
  • Sullivan, K.A. (1989) Predation and starvation: age specific mortality in juvenile juncos (Junco phaenotus). Journal of Animal Ecology, 58, 275286.
  • Svensson, E. & Nilsson, J.A. (1995) Food-supply, territory quality, and reproductive timing in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus). Ecology, 76, 18041812.
  • Thomas, D.W., Blondel, J., Perret, P., Lambrechts, M.M. & Speakman, J.R. (2001) Energetic and fitness costs of mismatching resource supply and demand in seasonally breeding birds. Science, 291, 25982600.
  • Weggler, M. (2006) Constraints on, and determinants of, the annual number of breeding attempts in the multi-brooded black redstart Phoenicurus ochruros. Ibis, 148, 273284.
  • White, G.C. & Burnham, K.P. (1999) Program mark: survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study, 46, 120139.
  • Widmer, M. & Biebach, H. (2001) Changes in body condition from spring migration to reproduction in the garden warbler Sylvia borin: a comparison of lowland and a mountain population. Ardea, 89, 5768.
  • Wingfield, JC (1983) Avian endocrinology: environmental and ecological perspectives. Environmental and Endocrine Control of Reproduction: An Ecological Approach (eds S.W.E.Mikami, K.Homma & M.Wada), pp. 265288. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • Wingfield, J.C. & Kenagy, G.J. (1991) Natural regulation of reproductive cycles. Vertebrate Endocrinology: Fundamentals and Biomedical Implications (eds M.Schreibman & R.E.Jones), pp. 181241. Academic Press, New York.
  • Zammuto, R.M. & Millar, J.S. (1985) Environmental predictability, variability, and Spermophilus columbianus life history over an elevational gradient. Ecology, 66, 17841789.