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Fig. S1. Interpolation of IS from isotope variances: δ13C variances (Varδ13C) were estimated after the removal of isotope outliers and regressed onto measures of individual specialization (IS) of simulated populations (see text for details). Curves indicate fitted regressions; horizontal dashed lines indicate the empirical Varδ13C. Arrows indicate the empirical IS (emp) from gut contents and the expected IS (exp) interpolated from the empirical Varδ13C of four Brazilian frogs, using the regression equations. A Physalaemus cuvieri (N = 49); B Eupemphix nattereri (N = 44); C Chiasmocleis albopunctata (N = 17); D Elachistocleis bicolor (N = 46).

Table S1. Diet composition of Chiasmocleis albopunctata (N = 50), Elachistocleis bicolor (N = 50), Eupemphix nattereri (N = 37), and Physalaemus cuvieri (N = 50), in the Brazilian Cerrado, represented as the number of prey items consumed and their proportions (in parenthesis) in each species

Table S2. The V measure of individual specialization in the diets of four species of Brazilian frogs (Physalaemus cuvieri, Eupemphix nattereri, Chiasmocleis albopunctata, and Elachistocleis bicolor). Individual specialization was measured using both gut contents and δ13C stable isotopes. Only those individuals for which we had both gut content and isotope data were used. Vemp: empirical V index of individual specialization based on gut-content data; Varδ13C: empirically estimated variances of individual δ13C signatures; Vexp: expected value of the V index based on isotope data (see Methods). Vemp values were tested against null distributions generated with Monte Carlo bootstraps (10 000 simulations); ***P < 0.001. n: sample size

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