Appendix S1. Model structure for 27 a priori candidate models on survival (S) and nine models on temporary emigration parameters (γ ′′ and γ ′). Model notation follows Kendall (2008), Lebreton et al. (1992), and Laake and Rextad (2008).

Appendix S2. Results of closure tests for each year of the study using Stanley and Burnham (1999). Program CloseTest uses a null model of time dependence in capture probability, making it the appropriate test for closure for our data, given we expected temporal variation in capture probabilities.

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