Fig. S1. Simulated sizes for individuals with three different antler size potentials (grey: 12 antler tines, red: average size asymptote in Norwegian red deer, blue: 8 antler tines) and two different levels of the annual errors in growth: (a) SD = 10% of potential size at a given age, (b) SD = 20% of potential size at a given age.

Fig. S2. Logistic function fit (solid black line) to antler mass and tine number data from Iberian red deer, kindly provided by Y. Fierro and summarized in Fierro et  al. (2002).

Fig. S3. Survival probability (natural) plotted as a function of age as used in the simulation model of male red deer.

Fig. S4. Different levels of simulated age-specific survival probability (natural) of male red deer.

Fig. S5. Twenty-five-year dynamics of a simulated population of male red deer without hunting.

Fig. S6. Boxplots showing the distribution of antler sizes over all ages in Norwegian red deer (left) and a simulated population from the individual-based model. Both the real and the simulated population were hunted.

Fig. S7. Distribution of correlation estimates between simulated antler tine numbers of yearling and 6-year-old red deer, when the annual error () in antler growth was set to 0·1 (thin hashed line), 0·15 (thick solid line) and 0·2 (thin solid line).

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