SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abrams, P., Menge, B.A., Mittelbach, G.G., Spiller, D. & Yodzis, P. (1996) The role of indirect effects in food webs. Food Webs: Integration of Patterns and Dynamics (eds G.A.Polis & K.O.Winemiller), pp. 371395. Chapman & Hall, New York.
  • Albrecht, M., Duelli, P., Schmid, B. & Müller, C.B. (2007) Interaction diversity within quantified insect food webs in restored and adjacent intensively managed meadows. Journal of Animal Ecology, 76, 10151025.
  • Anderson, J.C. & Gerbing, D.W. (1988) Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411423.
  • Andow, D.A. (1991) Vegetational diversity and arthropod population response. Annual Review of Entomology, 36, 561586.
  • Aquilino, K.M., Cardinale, B.J. & Ives, A.R. (2005) Reciprocal effects of host plant and natural enemy diversity on herbivore suppression: an empirical study of a model tritrophic system. Oikos, 108, 275282.
  • Araj, S.E., Wratten, S., Lister, A. & Buckley, H. (2008) Floral diversity, parasitoids and hyperparasitoids – a laboratory approach. Basic and Applied Ecology, 9, 588597.
  • Balvanera, P., Pfisterer, A.B., Buchmann, N., He, J.S., Nakashizuka, T., Raffaelli, D. & Schmid, B. (2006) Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecology Letters, 9, 11461156.
  • Bentler, P.M. (2006) EQS 6: Structural Equations Program Manual. Multivariate Software Inc, Encino, CA.
  • Bersier, L.F., Banasek-Richter, C. & Cattin, M.F. (2002) Quantitative descriptors of food-web matrices. Ecology, 83, 23942407.
  • Brewer, M.J. & Elliott, N.C. (2004) Biological control of cereal aphids in North America and mediating effects of host plant and habitat manipulations. Annual Review of Entomology, 49, 219242.
  • Brose, U. (2003) Bottom–up control of carabid beetle communities in early successional wetlands: mediated by vegetation structure or plant diversity? Oecologia, 135, 407413.
  • Bukovinszky, T., Van Veen, F.J.F., Jongema, Y. & Dicke, M. (2008) Direct and indirect effects of resource quality on food web structure. Science, 319, 804807.
  • Cardinale, B.J., Harvey, C.T., Gross, K. & Ives, A.R. (2003) Biodiversity and biocontrol: emergent impacts of a multi-enemy assemblage on pest suppression and crop yield in an agroecosystem. Ecology Letters, 6, 857865.
  • Dixon, A.F.G., Kindlmann, P., Leps, J. & Holman, J. (1987) Why there are so few species of aphids, especially in the tropics. The American Naturalist, 129, 580592.
  • Duffy, J.E., Cardinale, B.J., France, K.E., McIntyre, P.B., Thebault, E. & Loreau, M. (2007) The functional role of biodiversity in ecosystems: incorporating trophic complexity. Ecology Letters, 10, 522538.
  • Dyer, L.A. & Letourneau, D. (2003) Top–down and bottom–up diversity cascades in detrital vs. living food webs. Ecology Letters, 6, 6068.
  • Dyer, L.A. & Stireman, J.O. (2003) Community-wide trophic cascades and other indirect interactions in an agricultural community. Basic and Applied Ecology, 4, 423432.
  • Fergusson, N.D.M. (1980) A revision of the British species of Dendrocerus Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea) with a review of their biology as aphid hyperparasites. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology), 41, 255314.
  • Fox, J.W. (2006) Structural equation modeling with the sem package in R. Structural Equation Modelling, 13, 465486.
  • Godfray, H.C.J. (1994) Parasitoids: Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Gotelli, N.J. & Colwell, R.K. (2001) Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecology Letters, 4, 379391.
  • Haddad, N.M., Tilman, D., Haarstad, J., Ritchie, M. & Knops, J.M.H. (2001) Contrasting effects of plant richness and composition on insect communities: a field experiment. American Naturalist, 158, 1735.
  • Haddad, N.M., Crutsinger, G.M., Gross, K., Haarstad, J., Knops, J.M.H. & Tilman, D. (2009) Plant species loss decreases arthropod diversity and shifts trophic structure. Ecology Letters, 12, 10291039.
  • Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. & Black, W.C. (1995) Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
  • Hairston, N.G., Smith, F.E. & Slobodkin, L.B. (1960) Community structure, population control and competition. The American Naturalist, 94, 421425.
  • Hochberg, M.E. & Hawkins, B.A. (1992) Refuges as a predictor of parasitoid diversity. Science, 255, 973976.
  • Hooper, D.U., Chapin, F.S., Ewel, J.J., Hector, A., Inchausti, P., Lavorel, S., Lawton, J.H., Lodge, D.M., Loreau, M., Naeem, S., Schmid, B., Setala, H., Symstad, A.J., Vandermeer, J. & Wardle, D.A. (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs, 75, 335.
  • Jactel, H. & Brockerhoff, E.G. (2007) Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects. Ecology Letters, 10, 835848.
  • Japoshvili, G. & Abrantes, I. (2006) Aphelinus species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from the Iberian Peninsula, with the description of one new species from Portugal. Journal of Natural History, 40, 855862.
  • Joshi, J., Otway, S.J., Koricheva, J., Pfisterer, A.B., Alphei, J., Roy, B.A., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schmid, B., Spehn, E.M. & Hector, A. (2004) Bottom–up effects and feedbacks in simple and diverse experimental grassland communities. Insects and Ecosystem Function (eds W.W.Weisser & E.Siemann), pp. 116134. Springer, Berlin.
  • Kagata, H. & Ohgushi, T. (2006) Bottom–up trophic cascades and material transfer in terrestrial food webs. Ecological Research, 21, 2634.
  • Kavallieratos, N.G., Tomanovic, Z., Stary, P., Athanassiou, C.G., Fasseas, C., Petrovic, O., Stanisavljevic, L.Z. & Veroniki, M.A. (2005) Praon Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of southeastern Europe: key, host range and phylogenetic relationships. Zoologischer Anzeiger – A Journal of Comparative Zoology, 243, 181209.
  • Kline, R.B. (2005) Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. The Guilford Press, New York.
  • Knops, J.M.H., Tilman, D., Haddad, N.M., Naeem, S., Mitchell, C.E., Haarstad, J., Ritchie, M.E., Howe, K.M., Reich, P.B., Siemann, E. & Groth, J. (1999) Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances and diversity. Ecology Letters, 2, 286293.
  • Koricheva, J., Mulder, C.P.H., Schmid, B., Joshi, J. & Huss-Danell, K. (2000) Numerical responses of different trophic groups of invertebrates to manipulations of plant diversity in grasslands. Oecologia, 125, 271282.
  • Kruess, A. & Tscharntke, T. (1994) Habitat fragmentation, species loss, and biological control. Science, 264, 15811584.
  • Langellotto, G.A. & Denno, R.F. (2004) Responses of invertebrate natural enemies to complex-structured habitats: a meta-analytical synthesis. Oecologia, 139, 110.
  • Larsson, H. (2005) A crop loss model and economic thresholds for the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), in winter wheat in southern Sweden. Crop Protection, 24, 397405.
  • Lawton, J.H. & McNeill, S. (1979) Between the devil and the deep blue sea: on the problems of being an herbivore. Population Dynamics (eds R.M.Anderson, B.D.Turner & L.R.Taylor), pp. 223244. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
  • Macfadyen, S., Gibson, R., Polaszek, A., Morris, R.J., Craze, P.G., Planqué, R., Symondson, W.O.C. & Memmott, J. (2009) Do differences in food web structure between organic and conventional farms affect the ecosystem service of pest control? Ecology Letters, 12, 229238.
  • Marquard, E., Weigelt, A., Temperton, V.M., Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Buchmann, N., Fischer, M., Weisser, W. & Schmid, B. (in press) Plant species richness and functional composition drive overyielding in a 6-year grassland experiment. Ecology, 90, 32903302.
  • Memmott, N.D., Martinez, N.D. & Cohen, J.E. (2000) Predators, parasitoids and pathogens: species richness, trophic generality and body sizes in a natural food web. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 115.
  • Montoya, J.M., Rodriguez, M.A. & Hawkins, B.A. (2003) Food web complexity and higher-level ecosystem services. Ecology Letters, 6, 587593.
  • Mulder, C.P.H., Koricheva, J., Huss-Danell, K., Högberg, P. & Joshi, J. (1999) Insects affect relationships between plant species richness and ecosystem processes. Ecology Letters, 2, 237246.
  • Müller, C.B., Adriaanse, I.C.T., Belshaw, R. & Godfray, H.C.J. (1999) The structure of an aphid–parasitoid community. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 346370.
  • Otway, S.J., Hector, A. & Lawton, J.H. (2005) Resource dilution effects on specialist insect herbivores in a grassland biodiversity experiment. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74, 234240.
  • Perner, J., Voigt, W., Bahrmann, R., Heinrich, W., Marstaller, R., Fabian, B., Gregor, K., Lichter, D., Sander, F.W. & Jones, T.H. (2003) Responses of arthropods to plant diversity: changes after pollution cessation. Ecography, 26, 788800.
  • Petanidou, T., Kallimanis, A.S., Tzanopoulos, J., Sgardelis, S.P. & Pantis, J.D. (2008) Long-term observation of a pollination network: fluctuation in species and interactions, relative invariance of network structure and implications for estimates of specialization. Ecology Letters, 11, 564575.
  • Prieur-Richard, A.-H., Lavorel, S., Linhart, Y. & Dos Santos, A. (2002) Plant diversity, herbivory and resistance of a plant community to invasion in Mediterranean annual communities. Oecologia, 130, 96104.
  • Root, R.B. (1973) Organization of a plant–arthropod association in simple and diverse habitats: the fauna of Collards (Brassica oleracea). Ecological Monographs, 43, 95124.
  • Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Baade, J., Wilcke, W., Gleixner, G., Weisser, W.W., Schmid, B. & Schulze, E.-D. (2004) The role of biodiversity for element cycling and trophic interactions: an experimental approach in a grassland community. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 107121.
  • Roscher, C., Temperton, V.M., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schmitz, M., Schumacher, J., Schmid, B., Buchmann, N., Weisser, W.W. & Schulze, E.-D. (2005) Overyielding in experimental grassland communities – irrespective of species pool or spatial scale. Ecology Letters, 8, 419429.
  • Rothmaler, R. (2002) Exkursionsflora von Deutschland. Spektrum, Heidelberg-Berlin.
  • Scherber, C., Mwangi, P.N., Temperton, V.M., Roscher, C., Schumacher, J., Schmid, B. & Weisser, W.W. (2006) Effects of plant diversity on invertebrate herbivory in experimental grassland. Oecologia, 147, 489500.
  • Schmid, B. & Hector, A. (2004) The value of biodiversity experiments. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 535542.
  • Schmid, B., Hector, A., Huston, M.A., Inchausti, P., Nijs, I., Leadley, P.W. & Tilman, D. (2002) The design and analysis of biodiversity experiments. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning (eds M.Loreau, S.Naeem & P.Inchausti), pp. 6175. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Schmid, B., Balvanera, P., Cardinale, B.J., Godbold, J., Pfisterer, A.B., Raffaelli, D., Solan, M. & Srivastava, D.S. (2009) Consequences of species loss for ecosystem functioning: a meta-analysis of data from biodiversity experiments. Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing: An Ecological and Economic Perspective (eds S.Naeem, D.E.Bunker, A.Hector, M.Loreau & C.Perrings), pp. 1429. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Schmidt, M.H., Lauer, A., Purtauf, T., Thies, C., Schaefer, M. & Tscharntke, T. (2003) Relative importance of predators and parasitoids for cereal aphid control. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 270, 19051909.
  • Siemann, E., Tilman, D., Haarstad, J. & Ritchie, M. (1998) Experimental tests of the dependence of arthropod diversity on plant diversity. American Naturalist, 152, 738750.
  • Spehn, E.M., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schmid, B., Hector, A., Caldeira, M.C., Dimitrakopoulos, P.G., Finn, J.A., Jumpponen, A., O’Donovan, G., Pereira, J.S., Schulze, E.-D., Troumbis, A.Y. & Körner, C. (2002) The role of legumes as a component of biodiversity in a cross-European study of grassland biomass nitrogen. Oikos, 98, 205218.
  • Starý, P. (1966) Aphid Parasites of Czechoslovakia. A Review of the Czechoslovak Aphidiidae (Hymenoptera). W. Junk, The Hague.
  • Starý, P. (1976) Aphid Parasites (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) of the Mediterranean Area. W. Junk, The Hague.
  • Symstad, A.J., Siemann, E. & Haarstad, J. (2000) An experimental test of the effect of plant functional group diversity on arthropod diversity. Oikos, 89, 243253.
  • Thébault, E. & Loreau, M. (2006) The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in food webs. Ecological Research, 21, 1725.
  • Thébault, E., Huber, V. & Loreau, M. (2007) Cascading extinctions and ecosystem functioning: contrasting effects of diversity depending on food web structure. Oikos, 116, 163173.
  • Tscharntke, T. & Hawkins, B.A. (2002) Multitrophic Level Interactions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Tylianakis, J.M., Rand, T.A., Kahmen, A., Klein, A.-M., Buchmann, N., Perner, J. & Tscharntke, T. (2008) Resource heterogeneity moderates the biodiversity–function relationship in real world ecosystems. PLoS Biology, 6, 947956.
  • Unsicker, S.B., Baer, N., Kahmen, A., Wagner, M., Buchmann, N. & Weisser, W.W. (2006) Invertebrate herbivory along a gradient of plant species diversity in extensively managed grasslands. Oecologia, 150, 233246.
  • Unsicker, S., Oswald, A., Köhler, G. & Weisser, W. (2008) Complementarity effects through dietary mixing enhance the performance of a generalist insect herbivore. Oecologia, 156, 313324.
  • Vanbergen, A.J., Jones, T.H., Hails, R.S., Watt, A.D. & Elston, D.A. (2007) Consequences for a host–parasitoid interaction of host–plant aggregation, isolation, and phenology. Ecological Entomology, 32, 419427.
  • Van Veen, F.J.F., Müller, C.B., Adriaanse, I.C.T. & Godfray, H.C.J. (2002) Spatial heterogeneity in risk of secondary parasitism in a natural population of an aphid parasitoid. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 463469.
  • Viketoft, M., Bengtsson, J., Sohlenius, B., Berg, M.P., Petchey, O., Palmborg, C. & Huss-Danell, K. (2009) Long-term effects of plant diversity and composition on soil nematode communities in model grasslands. Ecology, 90, 9099.
  • Vos, M., Berrocal, S.M., Karamaouna, F., Hemerik, L. & Vet, L.E.M. (2001) Plant-mediated indirect effects and the persistence of parasitoid–herbivore communities. Ecology Letters, 4, 3845.