SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Altwegg, R. (2002) Predator-induced life-history plasticity under time constraints in pool frogs. Ecology, 83, 25422551.
  • Anderson, M.T., Kiesecker, J.M., Chivers, D.P. & Blaustein, A.R. (2001) The direct and indirect effects of temperature on a predator-prey relationship. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79, 18341841.
  • Angilletta, M.J., Steury, T.D. & Sears, M.W. (2004) Temperature, growth rate, and body size in ectotherms: fitting pieces of a life-history puzzle. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 44, 498509.
  • Arnold, S.J. & Phillips, P.C. (1999) Hierarchical comparison of genetic variance-covariance matrices. II. Coastal-inland divergence in the garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. Evolution, 53, 15161527.
  • Atkinson, D. (1996) Ectotherm life-history responses to developmental temperature. Animals and Temperature. Phenotypic and Evolutionary Adaptation (eds I.A.Johnston & A.F.Benett). pp. 183204, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Babbitt, K.J. & Jordan, F. (1996) Predation on Bufo terrestris tadpoles: effects of cover and predator identity. Copeia, 1996, 485488.
  • Benard, M.F. (2004) Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity in organisms with complex life histories. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 35, 651673.
  • Benard, M.F. (2006) Survival trade-offs between two predator-induced phenotypes in pacific treefrogs. Ecology, 87, 340346.
  • Blair, J. & Wassersug, R.J. (2000) Variation in the pattern of predator-induced damage to tadpole tails. Copeia, 2000, 390401.
  • Blouin, M.S. & Brown, S.T. (2000) Effects of temperature-induced variation in anuran larval growth rate on head width and leg length at metamorphosis. Oecologia, 125, 358361.
  • Boersma, M., Spaak, P. & De Meester, L. (1998) Predator-mediated plasticity in morphology, life history, and behavior of Daphnia: the uncoupling of responses. American Naturalist, 152, 237248.
  • Bourdeau, P.E. (2010) An inducible morphological defence is a passive by-product of behaviour in a marine snail. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 277, 455462.
  • Chivers, D.P. & Smith, R.J.F. (1998) Chemical alarm signalling in aquatic predator-prey systems: a review and prospectus. Ecoscience, 5, 338352.
  • Dayton, G.H., Saenz, D., Baum, K.A., Langerhans, R.B. & DeWitt, T.J. (2005) Body shape, burst speed and escape behavior of larval anurans. Oikos, 111, 582591.
  • Dodson, S.I., Crowl, T.A., Peckarsky, B.L., Kats, L.B., Covich, A.P. & Culp, J.M. (1994) Nonvisual communication in fresh-water benthos – An overview. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 13, 268282.
  • Duellman, W.E. (2001) The Hylid Frogs of Middle America. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, NY.
  • Duquette, S.L., Altwegg, R. & Anholt, B.R. (2005) Factors affecting the expression of inducible defences in Euplotes: genotype, predator density and experience. Functional Ecology, 19, 648655.
  • Faivovich, J., Haddad, C.F.B., Garcia, P.C.A., Frost, D.R., Campbell, J.A. & Wheeler, W.C. (2005) Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 294, 1240.
  • Ferrari, M.C.O., Sih, A. & Chivers, D.P. (2009) The paradox of risk allocation: a review and prospectus. Animal Behaviour, 78, 579585.
  • Flury, B. (1988) Common Principal Components and Related Multivariate Models. Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA.
  • Gomez-Mestre, I., Saccoccio, V.L., Iijima, T., Collins, E.M., Rosenthal, G.G. & Warkentin, K.M. (2010) The shape of things to come: linking developmental plasticity to postmetamorphic morphology in anurans. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 23, 13641373.
  • Gosner, K.L. (1960) A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica, 16, 183190.
  • Gouchie, G.M., Roberts, L.F. & Wassersug, R.J. (2008) The effect of mirrors on African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) larval growth, development, and behavior. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62, 18211829.
  • Gresens, S.E., Cothran, M.L. & Thorp, J.H. (1982) The influence of temperature on the functional response of the dragonfly Celithemis fasciata (Odonata: Libellulidae). Oecologia, 53, 281284.
  • Hoff, K.V. & Wassersug, R.J. (2000) Tadpole locomotion: axial movement and tail functions in a largely vertebraeless vertebrate. American Zoologist, 40, 6276.
  • Houle, D., Mezey, J. & Galpern, P. (2002) Interpretation of the results of common principal components analyses. Evolution, 56, 433440.
  • Huxley, J.S. (1932) Problems of Relative Growth. Lincoln Mac Veagh Dial, New York.
  • Johansson, F. & Andersson, J. (2009) Scared fish get lazy, and lazy fish get fat. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 772777.
  • Johansson, F., Stoks, R., Rowe, L. & De Block, M. (2001) Life history plasticity in a damselfly: effects of combined time and biotic constraints. Ecology, 82, 18571869.
  • Karban, R. & Baldwin, I.T. (1997) Induced Responses to Herbivory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Kopp, K., Wachlevski, M. & Eterovick, P.C. (2006) Environmental complexity reduces tadpole predation by water bugs. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 84, 136140.
  • Kraft, P.G., Franklin, C.E. & Blows, M.W. (2006) Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity in tadpoles: extension or innovation? Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19, 450458.
  • LaFiandra, E.M. & Babbitt, K.J. (2004) Predator induced phenotypic plasticity in the pinewoods tree frog, Hyla femoralis: necessary cues and the cost of development. Oecologia, 138, 350359.
  • Lardner, B. (2000) Morphological and life history responses to predators in larvae of seven anurans. Oikos, 88, 169180.
  • Laurila, A., Lindgren, B. & Laugen, A.T. (2008) Antipredator defenses along a latitudinal gradient in Rana temporaria. Ecology, 89, 13991413.
  • Lima, S.L. & Bednekoff, P.A. (1999) Temporal variation in danger drives antipredator behavior: the predation risk allocation hypothesis. American Naturalist, 153, 649659.
  • McCollum, S.A. & Leimberger, J.D. (1997) Predator-induced morphological changes in an amphibian: predation by dragonflies affects tadpole shape and color. Oecologia, 109, 615621.
  • McCollum, S.A. & Van Buskirk, J. (1996) Costs and benefits of a predator-induced polyphenism in the gray treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis. Evolution, 50, 583593.
  • McCoy, M.W. (2007) Conspecifc density determines the magnitude and character of predator-induced phenotype. Oecologia, 153, 871878.
  • McCoy, M.W., Bolker, B.M., Osenberg, C.W., Miner, B.G. & Vonesh, J.R. (2006) Size correction: comparing morphological traits among populations and environments. Oecologia, 148, 547554.
  • Mikolajewski, D.J., Joop, G. & Wohlfahrt, B. (2007) Coping with predators and food limitation: testing life history theory for sex-specific larval development. Oikos, 116, 642649.
  • Newman, R.A. (1994) Effects of changing density and food level on metamorphosis of a desert amphibian, Scaphiopus couchii. Ecology, 75, 10851096.
  • Peacor, S.D. (2003) Phenotypic modifications to conspecific density arising from predation risk assessment. Oikos, 100, 409415.
  • Peckarsky, B.L. (1984) Predator–prey interaction among aquatic insects. The Ecology of Aquatic Insects (eds V.H.Resh & D.M.Rosenberg). pp. 196254. Praeger, New York.
  • Persson, L. (1986) Temperature-induced shift in foraging ability in two fish species, roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis): implications for coexistence between poikilotherms. Journal of Animal Ecology, 55, 829839.
  • Phillips, P.C. (1998) CPC – Common Principal Component Analysis Program. http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~pphil/software.html.
  • Phillips, P.C. & Arnold, S.J. (1999) Hierarchical comparison of genetic variance-covariance matrices. I. Using the Flury hierarchy. Evolution, 53, 15061515.
  • R Development Core Team (2007) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  • Relyea, R.A. (2001) The relationship between predation risk and antipredator responses in larval anurans. Ecology, 82, 541554.
  • Relyea, R.A. (2004a) Fine-tuned phenotypes: tadpole plasticity under 16 combinations of predators and competitors. Ecology, 85, 172179.
  • Relyea, R.A. (2004b) Integrating phenotypic plasticity when death is on the line: insights from predator-prey systems. Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Evolutionary Biology of Complex Phenotypes (eds M.Pigliucci & K.Preston). pp. 176190, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Rot-Nikcevic, I., Taylor, C.N. & Wassersug, R.J. (2006) The role of images of conspecifics as visual cues in the development and behavior of larval anurans. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 60, 1925.
  • Schoeppner, N.M. & Relyea, R.A. (2005) Damage, digestion, and defence: the roles of alarm cues and kairomones for inducing prey defences. Ecology Letters, 8, 505512.
  • Skelly, D.K. (1994) Activity level and the susceptibility of anuran larvae to predation. Animal Behaviour, 47, 465468.
  • Skelly, D.K., Freidenburg, L.K. & Kiesecker, J.M. (2002) Forest canopy and the performance of larval amphibians. Ecology, 83, 983992.
  • Smith-Gill, S.J. & Berven, K.A. (1979) Predicting amphibian metamorphosis. American Naturalist, 113, 563585.
  • Spitze, K. (1992) Predator-mediated plasticity of prey life-history and morphology –Chaoborus americanus predation on Daphnia pulex. American Naturalist, 139, 229247.
  • Steiner, U.K. (2007) Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient. Oecologia, 152, 201210.
  • Stoks, R., Block, M.D., Van De Meutter, F. & Johansson, F. (2005) Predation cost of rapid growth: behavioural coupling and physiological decoupling. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74, 708715.
  • Stuart-Fox, D. & Moussalli, A. (2009) Camouflage, communication and thermoregulation: lessons from a colour changing organism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 364, 463470.
  • Thompson, D.J. (1978) Towards a realistic predator-prey model: the effect of temperature on the functional response and life history of larvae of the damselfly, Ischnura elegans. Journal of Animal Ecology, 47, 757767.
  • Touchon, J.C. & Warkentin, K.M. (2008a) Fish and dragonfly nymph predators induce opposite shifts in color and morphology of tadpoles. Oikos, 117, 634640.
  • Touchon, J.C. & Warkentin, K.M. (2008b) Reproductive mode plasticity: aquatic and terrestrial oviposition in a treefrog. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 74957499.
  • Touchon, J.C. & Warkentin, K.M. (2009) Negative synergism of rainfall patterns and predators affects frog egg survival. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 715723.
  • Trussell, G.C. (1996) Phenotypic plasticity in an intertidal snail: the role of a common crab predator. Evolution, 50, 448454.
  • Turner, A.M. (2004) Non-lethal effects of predators on prey growth rates depend on prey density and nutrient additions. Oikos, 104, 561569.
  • Van Buskirk, J. (2001) Specific induced responses to different predator species in anuran larvae. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14, 482489.
  • Van Buskirk, J. & McCollum, S.A. (1999) Plasticity and selection explain variation in tadpole phenotype between ponds with different predator composition. Oikos, 85, 3139.
  • Van Buskirk, J. & McCollum, S.A. (2000) Influence of tail shape on tadpole swimming performance. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 21492158.
  • Van Buskirk, J., Anderwald, P., Lupold, S., Reinhardt, L. & Schuler, H. (2003) The lure effect, tadpole tail shape, and the target of dragonfly strikes. Journal of Herpetology, 37, 420424.
  • Van Buskirk, J., Aschwanden, J., Buckelmuller, I., Reolon, S. & Ruttiman, S. (2004) Bold tail coloration protects tadpoles from dragonfly strikes. Copeia, 2004, 599602.
  • Wiackowski, K. & Staronska, A. (1999) The effect of predator and prey density on the induced defence of a ciliate. Functional Ecology, 13, 5965.
  • Windsor, D.M. (1990) Climate and Moisture Variability in a Tropical forest : Long-term Records from Barro Colorado Island, Panamá, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.