Appendix S1. Linear equations for determining stage-specific hunting mortality.

Appendix S2. Population fluctuations of the total grouse population from the stochastic model with selective harvesting (solid line) and non-selective harvesting (dashed line).

Appendix S3. Strength of harvest selectivity.

Appendix S4. Mean winter mortality rate for (a) 1-year-old males and females for selective harvesting and selective harvesting and (b) 2-year-old males and females for selective and non-selective harvesting.

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